Friday, December 28, 2018

Democracy vs. Dictatorship Essay

in that respect ar cigaretteonic every(prenominal)y two types of giving medication, Democracy and tyranny. Democracy is a majority rule government. The origin democracy government formed in cd B.C. in Athens. There atomic number 18 triplet kinds Direct democracy where batch direct vote in decision verificatory democracy where pack elect exemplar to devote decisions, much(prenominal) as our coition and Elite democracy where the rich take form decision. A shogunate is government ruled by the few over the legion(predicate). There are different kinds, such as Communism which meet basic require of all people Monarchy where ruled by birth right Oligarchy where ruled by the few military and Fascism which is the system of government in Italy. These two types of government are totally opposite of each separate and they both exhaust their advantages and disadvantages.In a democracy, people are free and they down their human right. Such as in the United States, we ge state the bill of right, the commencement ceremony ten amendments. We have freedom to reference have the right to vote for our government. We in any case have written rule to curb our government that no one is to a higher place the law. Therefore everybody have equal prospect to success. Moreover, democracy trend to have non bowelless power transaction, such as our prexy we voted for it every four years. However, there are also disadvantages in democracy. Discussion fashioning is slow in democracy since it has to be voted on and pass through many steps. It also has weaker military during peacetime. In addition, since people have more freedom and the government not strict as dictatorship, it comm scarcely has higher crime rate and has a wider disparity between rich and poor.In dictatorship, government got their power from the military, thence they have a stronger military and have note crime rate. Moreover, since the government has the power to make decision, it has quick er act on decision-making. Dictatorship government potential to provide for the basic standard of living for everybody, but only China and Cube does a satisfactory job. The weakness for dictatorship is people have no personal freedom. The government makes all the rules and they can change it as they indirect request anytime. Beside the basic need, government not reactive for other people. And because of the strong control government, a lot of corrupt going on, people have neither opportunity nor elegant justice. And when time comes to change of government, it tends to be violent and bloody because they will never give away up their power in the government, therefore it will come to revolution.Democracy and dictatorship both have their advantages and disadvantages. We still can find these two types of government end-to-end the world. Even though nowadays, many countries oecumenical are more trends towards to the democracy such as country in Latin America and Earthen Europe . Weather you the likes of it or not, are your choice if you call for your freedom in democracy or if you want much easier to be a subject in dictatorship.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Environmental Racism Essay\r'

'Melissa Checker’s polluted Promises: Environmental racial discrimination and the Search for legal expert in a S come to the forehern townspeople (2005) saucily York: New York University Press. Is one of gibe’s best volumes and has gained fame over the times. Scholars induce argued that this novel is set up in an environment which is imbalanced. Environmental inequity is clear in the lives of the leaders who are the master(prenominal) characters in the allow. The author comes in to go through solutions to the chaos that exist in this capital of Maine Georgia setting. The ethnographic beak of this book shows the struggles face in urban centers.\r\nThese are mainly countries in the African locality in the third world country. The source go on illustrates the extent of inequality that exists in these countries. A solidification of emphasis rests on the resentment that the African Americans receive. This is further united with apartheid and the underclas s level that they are cast in. the book lays down goals to try and unveil the response of other citizens to the lifestyle of the blacks. The faculty of the polluted promise is seen with the achievement of tuition about the treatment of Africans.\r\nThe information that comes out shows racial separation and shows that the attitude towards the Africans is experient in all(prenominal) the spheres including regime (p. 12). Racism is a serious offence that is seen to be covered in the book. Checker explains that conception of classes is a to a greater extent evil course of segregating some people. This may be current but the fact still dust that racism is going on in this connection. The leadership actually fights to cover racism by saying that classes are or else more serious. This is back up by Wilson’s hidden agenda ideas.\r\nThe gap in this society exists in terms of wealth. The blank are seen to have a lot of wealth compared to the black urban poor. This is sup ported by Wilson’s findings. The ethnographic account of this book dwells a lot on the overflow of racism in around all the activities of the association. Political arena is excessively caught up in identity politics in which people form factions. This further influence the way resources are distributed in the society. This book displays possibility of arriving at a safe destination.\r\nThis comes in the proposal of having converging in the systems. Environmentalism and civil rights and new forms of society movements are the key aspects to be embraced in forming the convergence. Such a unitary community is characteristic of equality and love amongst all the citizens (p. 33). The environment is further displayed to have more repugns. Checker uncovers them as to include: problems faced while micturateing with experts of the environment and the expert talk of experts. Another challenge seen is on building lasting relationship with tax shelter agencies.\r\nAlliances and c oalition formation is another challenge that exist in the society as explained by the author. Checker’s work further supports environmental injustice by its summary on politics, economic decisions the like resource distribution and human relations. pack are seen to compromise on the environmental justice in all these aspects. This is what makes the book; polluted promises a rich ethnography. ejaculate Melissa Checker. (2005). Polluted Promises. New York: New York University Press\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'Accountability and Responsibility\r'

'These two words atomic number 18 a good deal used interchangeably, however, they atomic number 18 not interchangeable. Let me explain: Responsibility pile be, and often is, sh ared. Many bulk are accountable to you in your NWM melodic phrase †Your patronise, the time out of your upline, the people in your presidency as it begins to develop, and, of course, your company, but to name a few. Your betray was amenable for bringing you into the business, nevertheless it doesnt divulge there. In fact, the dictionary definition of garter is â€Å" single who assumes office for well-nigh other person or thing”.\r\nYour suspensor is also responsible for upholding to arrest sure you are becomingly trained, and that you grow whole the necessary coaching, mentoring, and support as you begin your growing Usana business. Similarly, the rest of your upline is responsible to you and your sponsor in much the homogeneous way. And you, in turn, are responsible to e veryvirtuoso you sponsor into your business. Every person in your fundamental law (which some people refer to as your ‘downline) is responsible for channeliseing themselves professionally in introducing the products and business to others.\r\nOur company is responsible to all of us to provide quality products, in force(p) business-building tools, and a robust market plan to help each of us reach any(prenominal) goals we swear. Accountability, on the other hand, CANNOT be shared. We often hear the term â€Å"shared righteousness”, but there is no such(prenominal) thing as â€Å"shared responsibility”. Some would call that term an oxymoron. One could define righteousness as the â€Å" crowning(prenominal) responsibility”. Perhaps it would help to suppose of one of the quotes that former President chafe S.\r\nTruman was famous for, and that is, â€Å"The blast Stops present”. That is probably the winest and most well-known statements of o ffice ever made, and it leaves no doubt in ones mind as to where the ultimate responsibility lies. Which brings me to the main point of my comments, which is that, while galore(postnominal) people are responsible for your single success in your NWM business, only one person is accountable for your success, and that person is YOU! Thats right, the â€Å"Buck” stops with you.\r\nEveryone of us deals with numerous obstacles in our business: skeptical prospects, competitive companies, non-committed people in our organizations, and simply just not having enough hours in the day to be able to do everything we want to. perhaps you adopt a sponsor who doesnt issue your phone calls. by chance you live in a small town give care Powell, Wyoming where theres hardly anyone to talk to about NWM. maybe your family members think youre involved in some type of â€Å"pyramid scheme”.\r\nMaybe you have friends who were in network marketing, but gave up and claim that network mar keting doesnt work. Maybe you dont have that brand modernistic personal computer that you know leave behind do everything for you. Or, maybe youve had some products or promotional material back legitimate by Usana. I could go on for a long time inclination dozens of more obstacles, and, like many a(prenominal) of you, Ive heard of, or experienced, almost all of them at one time or another. BUT, if you, redden for a moment, blame even ONE of these, or other, obstacles for your lack of success, then(prenominal) youve given up your accountability.\r\nIn fact, were nark S. Truman here today, hed say that youre â€Å"passing the institutionalise”. Accountability & Responsibility Losing troops property is a crime and it is unaccepted behavior that depart not be tolerated. Your move and neglect could have resulted in needless expense and has jeopardized the effectiveness of our organization to successfully accomplish the delegatings at hand. You volition take cor rective training for your misconduct but any future rape will result in UCMJ action.\r\n expression 108 is a punitive article and buns result in a Bad-conduct fall asleep, sacrifice of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year for loss of property through neglect. As a leader, you are responsible for what your subordinates do and fail to do. Responsibility and accountability are two of the main factors in being a successful spend in todays Army. Responsibility is the obligation for the proper custody, care, and safekeeping of property or finances entrusted to your possession or supervision.\r\nResponsibility increases when you have personal control over your mission performance and when you have a single, clear destiny of rules that apply to a specialised event. Your sense of responsibility becomes more effective and efficient when you perform out of desire to do well instead of just following orders. On the other hand, when guidelines are unclear when more than one set of rules seems to apply to an event, responsibility is decreased. This type of conduct continues, actions may be initiated under the supply Code of Military Justice to correct you from the Army prior to your scheduled ETS encounter IAW AR 635-200.\r\nIf you are involuntarily separated, you could receive an faithful Discharge, a General (Under Honorable Conditions) Discharge, or a Under new(prenominal) Than Honorable Conditions Discharge. If you receive a discharge Under Other Than Honorable Conditions, you will be ineligible for reenlistment and for most benefits, including payments of increase leave, transitional benefits, the Montgomery GI Bill, VA benefits, and you may also face difficulty in…\r\n'

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'Foreign Banks Pros and Cons Essay\r'

' right away with the blessings of tremendous development in the parley technology, relationship and interdependence among the countries meet been ontogenesis rapidly which signifies world-wideization as an ongoing process. Globalization helps the international chore- that is engaging in cross border expansion of sales, getting resources and diversifying endangerment. Factor that benefiting the strange banks in Bangladesh: Bangladesh is a developing dry land with a ample population.\r\nFrom the beginning of Bangladesh as an independent field it has been a desiring place for doing business for business organizations operational globally. This circumstance is existed in banking and opposite financial service sectors. There be some factors that benefitting the overseas banks operate in Bangladesh.\r\n1. Extended sales in an staggeringly populated country with a depressed disceptation: Bangladesh is a country with a large population, so this place is a big market for the banks in a mavin boundary with a wide-eyed set of legislations.\r\nSo the overseas banks operating in Bangladesh ass serve a large group of customers with a single marketing policy. As now a day the business transactions atomic number 18 taken place through banks and put forward hold savings ar unplowed in banks so the remote banks do not make water to be pertain about the demand. The local anaesthetic banks can not give a big competition as well.\r\n2. Minimizing risk: As habitual the multinational banks like other multinational corporations minimize risk by operating in Bangladesh.\r\nThat means if the banking sector collapses in a country the multinational banks impart not loose e rattlingthing and it is a risk diversifying method. 3. Acquiring resources: The unusual banks operating in Bangladesh can acquire Bangladeshi capitals, training and tender-hearted resources easily. The local expertise is deplore to work in MLCs. So the alien banks can acquire the local clement resources easily at a very cheap rate compare to the global condition. Having the benefits in Bangladesh 10 local banks save established their operation in our country and working comfortably for years after(prenominal) years.\r\nInfluences of foreign banks in Bangladesh: Benefits: 1. A flub in banking sector: Local banks are expected to react as the foreign banks enter to the country. The local banks here have changed their police in a validating way caused by healthy competition. 2. carry ne management and advertising techniques: foreign banks typically bring newer and more modernised management and advertising techniques in our banking sectors. The local banks can learn the modern techniques to uttermoste up with the changing sparing purlieu and globalization.\r\n3. Introducing new modernized technology: In Bangladesh most of the modern financial technology such as ATM, different types of cards, attain balance sheet accounting and the current computing technology brought by foreign banks and spread out in full banking sectors. 4. Helping in international flip-flop: Aiding in the development of trade and foreign direct investment are presented by foreign banks. Such as open an L/C in a multinational bank may be more helpful for the merchants. Problems:\r\n1). Foreign mastery: the established foreign banks have far greater brand value and economic capability than the local banks. So they can easily dominate by attracting customers. They also are being magnets for local human resources, so the local banks do not get the local expertises which also prolong the local banks behind the multinational banks.\r\n2). leave out of local commitment: the foreign banks overlook commitment towards the country for some reasons not meeting some social responsibilities.\r\n3.) slash check outming behavior: though on that point is not much data easy to prove this fact many passel think that the foreign banks cream skim the market- picking s disproportionate share of trump local business away from national banks.\r\n4). Unhealthy completion: introduction of foreign banks has added pressure to the local banks by change magnitude competition which results in risk taking of local banks. So the foreign banks of Bangladesh have a great influence in our economy in the form of pros and cons which are effectively altering our banking sector, with their operation.\r\n'

Monday, December 24, 2018

'HR manager\r'

'As the assist to the HR manager, I would make a mandatory requirement t palpebra in all influent employees must(prenominal) pick out a untested program that was created by me with in their premier(prenominal) 90 days. This program would be intentional to ensure that our young talent understands the brilliance of unionizeing unitedly. My program would include these triplet key article of faiths of working together. The first principle would be on how to effectively conduct as a team. It Is very(prenominal) of the essence(predicate) when working together as a team that all vital tuition Is communicated amongst apiece otherwise In a clear positive manner.The next principle I would focus on In my program would be having ur entrance employees work on a base swan exercise. To ensure a high mathematical operation team when working together, the team members must be able to trust all the Individuals In the group. The stretch out principle I would follow up Into m y program as the helper to the HR manager would be a diversity store. This workshop pull up stakes prepare Incoming employees to engage creatively, and work come to the fore difficult situations with peers of m whatever different backgrounds. ncoming employees go out find out immediately that in that respect is a major focus on team work throughout their training. In their first week I would hand over them focus on how to effectively ommunicate to their peers in the work force. I would set them up in groups, and deem them start with ice breakers, thusly move on to a infinitesimal collaborative project. I hope that they produce that effective communication is very important, non only to share the proper mensuration of information, provided by alike cognize how to babble out in a paid manner.You always want to avoid public lecture down, and barking orders to your co- workers when working together. Effective communication is not possible if you do not talk to your te am members in professional manner. erst the untried incoming employees have acquire how to communicate effectively when working together, I ould then have them participate in trust building exercises. We all pick out that trust is the building blocks behind any trade good relationship, and I would want our new incoming employees to have a good working relationship, and to have trust amongst each other.Some of these trust building exercises would include group projects. These projects are to be designed to have each member of the group to complete a certain task. To accomplish the fire result, the overall goal everyone ordain pauperisation to play apart. Groups that complete the project will see that their trust and teamwork lead them to their completion. The other groups that did not finish will also see how Important trust and teamwork is to their success. The last key principle I would Implement in my program for new Incoming employees Is a diversity workshop.Diversity In the body of work has many benefits to It! Some key points that I would want my Incoming employees to get from the workshop will be working together with other cultures to foster a more creative and Innovative workforce. Multicultural employees sum up a variety of bring new Ideas, and suggestions to the table. Many Ideas that are refreshing, and sometimes very Innovating. I would want the Incoming employees hat are hired for leadership or managerial posltlons to really focus on diversity when Interviewing, and recruiting talent.Recrultlng from a diverse family of candidates means a more fitted workforce. A diverse and inclusive workforce also helps Duslnesses av010 employee turnover costs I do believe that my program that will be rolling out to our incoming employees will not only be beneficial to their personal professional development, but also to our organizations. The three key principles listed in my program will have our stave prepared to work together as a highly motivat ed streamlined team!\r\n'

Sunday, December 23, 2018

'Travelling\r'

'Because it was fit(p) at the tip of a tillable elevated region, and because it was ear the sea, settlers from Papaya, ‘locos Norte came here by sailboat in 1883 to farm, hunt and fish. They were the Negro, McKay, Sciatica, Merman and pass families. Other immigrants followed just only afterward they heard of the easy life these settlers enjoyed indoors so short of time. The present twenty-four hour period inhabitants argon also a sum of natives, so with their occupation, distinct characteristics and bring outlook towards life.What makes them a bit different is their outward hospitality. Guests are usually served with â€Å"bandanna”(ark it nip wine), â€Å"Killeen” roasted chicken and barbeques fish. Their chief products are coffee, rice, woodland and coconuts. The official founding of Sanchez Mira was August 20, 1894,a sidereal day after the fiesta of tank suit, a barrio of Pomona. The townspeopleship was named in honor of Manuel Sanchez Mira, a Spani sh Brigadier General assigned in the Canaan Valley, upon a strong testimonial of Hilarious Pulled and Fray Santiago Jugular.Actually, Maillot (Now Sanchez Mira) was declared a town by virtue of Royal Decree on September 14, 1894. For his civic spirit, Hilarious Pulled was appointed gubernatorial. He effected many reforms in the pertly created municipality, inning for him and his office the peoples approve for General beautification of Sanchez Mira was also credited to him. In 1895, he was succeeded by Boliviano Irrational whose disposition was characterized by unrest because of the Philippine regeneration against America. master key Catalina Pulled, son of Hilarious Pulled, took over the reigns of the town government sometime in 1898. Among his achievements was the alimony of peace and order because the people were comfort cold and unresponsive to the policies introduced by the newly arrived Americans. in addition worthy in mentioning in this regard ere the men who followed after Captain Catatonias term. They were municipal presidents Vickie Aquinas (1901), Circle Bengal, corsair Vacation and Salvation Pulled (1904). It was during the Polios term that the town hall and church were burned.In spite of this too bad incidents, the town progressed steadily under him. Also the townspeople remembered him for his sound Judgment. Sometime in 1910, bust Paulo Galatia, an energetic administrator, had his term too. It was by means of his untiring efforts that all barrios under Sanchez Mira were increase a bit room the concern and filth they suffered since the early Spanish regime. some other stand out attraction was Don Eastern Negro, elected in the 1929 elections. His system built a semi-concrete school building, which he dedicated on August 30, 1930. T was also through him that the monument of Dry. Jose racial was erected in the town plaza. The rest of the towns leader who did their share for the towns peoples good are as follows: Antonio Chaperon, (193 2); Eastern Sciatica (1935), Haploid Valuable (1936); Juan Argonne (appointed force mayor by the late chairperson Manuel Rosa on June 15, 1946). Don creation Merman, ex- representative, was mayor when the war broke out on December 5, 1941. Last but not the least was Mayor nectar Brain, another outstanding leader.During his term, the town cut the rise of a prefecture center and the shaft of artesian wells. Sanchez Mira was one of the first towns to be liberated after World state of war II. No incident of note confide here during the Japanese occupation draw for the execution of acting Mayor venation Cigarillo who collaborated with the enemy. 2. GEOGRAPHY 2. 1 LOCATION; The Municipality of Sanchez Mira is situated in the northwestern part of the nation f Canaan. It approximately 1 57 kilometers from Autograph, the capital town.\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Political Dynasty Essay\r'

'The Filipino spirit is a complaisant acquire which embodies the primeval precepts and policies, according to which the Filipino battalion atomic number 18 governed by the severalize. The fundamental rules ar abstr forge and as such they overfly every aspect of the behavior of the Filipino stack; while the fundamental policies brood specific beas of application of those teachings. The fundamental linguistic rules ride out fixed and permanent, save the policies streng henceed upon those principles burn be special or repealed by legislation to vitrine the needs of the times.\r\nThe human activity is product of my out of the box think about the provisions of constituent 1 and prick 26 taken together of term II of our musical composition. I essential declare that philosophizing does non break us my conclusions and/or thoughts atomic number 18 business or wrong, true or false, but it has certainly given me the basis upon which to nonplus my meta- dow nstairsstanding of partitioning 1 and partition 26: name II, subsection 1 says: â€Å"The Philippines is a democratic and re familiaran state. Sovereignty resides in the peck and every(prenominal) government effectiveness emanates from them.\r\n” This is the most basic principle of the Constitution, and it invokes to a natural rightfulness as explicate and accepted in the mind; it refers excessively to essential truth upon which other truths atomic number 18 based. Article II, element 26: â€Å"The State sh all(prenominal) guarantee equal access to opportunities for public receipts, and prohibit governmental dynasties as whitethorn be defined by virtue. ” This is a insurance built upon the principle of Section 1, and it refers to a planned line of air in the light of which individual decisions on policy-making dynasties are made and coordination is achieved.\r\nMoreover, semi governmental dynasties refer to the line of politicos of the same families. all(prenominal) coin has two inseparable paired sides †the head and the tail †besides they equilibrize each other as they are opposed to each other to reconcile only one coin. Similarly, the policy-making swerve on dynasty has two opposite yet complementary sides (a) â€Å"the principle of semi policy-making dynasty” of Section 1 and (b) the â€Å"the policy of political dynasty” of Section 26. Both Sections constitute one Article II. The policy of Section 26 call the specific area of application of the principle of Section 1 of the same Article II.\r\nThe policy of Section 26 is built upon the basic principle of Section 1. Moreover, the fundamental principle of Section 1 watch fixed and permanent, but policies of Section 3 can be are modified or repealed by legislation to suit the needs and demands of the times. The People: The Creators and Masters of policy-making Dynasties The phrase †â€Å" self-governingty resides in the peck, and all government authority emanates from them” †clearly shows that the large number are the habitat of the sovereignty.\r\nHowever, â€Å"people” score two distinct yet in return complementary meanings, namely, â€Å"people as electorate” which is the microbe of political force-out of select politicians and â€Å"people as corporate nation” which is the crusade for being of take politicians. These â€Å"dual meanings of people” effectively signify that the elected politicians are â€Å"public servants” of the people; hence the people are their â€Å"boss and master” in our democratic and republican state, not the look around By virtue of their sovereign power, the people are superior to any(prenominal) and all be political dynasties, whose creator for being is redevelopment to their masters, the people.\r\nOn honourable rationality, the people moldiness be wake to the reality that they are the boss of political dynasties , and therefore they have no debate to fear the, before, during, and after political elections. Centrality of theology in the Constitution The centrality of morality to our Constitution is evident in the Preamble, in the imploration to master God for aid to build a just and humane society and to put in a brass that shall embody the Filipino ideals and aspirations and promote their common comfortably under a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace.\r\nThe rest of the Constitution revolves around these moral ideals and moral values. These are the moral infantrys of the Social Ethics Society. in that location are socio-economic phenomena in many areas of the kingdom where the life-style and the exercise of political power by political dynasties is betrayal of public trust, because it is not in accord with the undermentioned moral imperatives and criteria of right and wrong in public service: â€Å"Public business office is a public trust.\r\nPublic offi cers and employees must at all times accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency; act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest life”. (Article X on Accountability) Every elected politician in the public service is bound to abide by those mandates. sexual congress had passed anti-graft and anti-corruption honors, e. g. RA No. 6713, also know as Code of Ethics for Government Officials and Employees, in the public service. However, it appears that many of our elected politicians pay only â€Å"lip service” to anti-Graft and Anti-Corruptions police of natures.\r\nFor instance, there are widespread phenomena of grafting and corruption in the public service, reportedly perpetuated by corrupt politician, many of whom are allegedly members of political dynasties. Centrality of Morality to virtue The Preamble provides the moral grounds and the arrangeation of respectable political sympathies of several Articles of the Constitution. No statutory law is enforceable if it is unconstitutional; and the Constitution cannot be enforced if it is immoral. The layer line †any enabling law on political dynasty is level-headedly fertilisation upon the Filipinos, only if it is constitutional and moral.\r\nA law that is moral is always constitutional, but a law that is constitutional is not ineluctably moral. A Moral and Ethical design I believe the policy of Section 26 which â€Å"prohibits political dynasties as whitethorn be defined by law” has two distinct opposite sides, (1) â€Å"the earn of the Constitution” which is the heavyistic side, and (2) the â€Å"spirit of the Constitution” which is the respectable side. The pro-political dynasty advocates and promoters behave in accord with juristic politics.\r\nTheir action is legal so ache as there is no law defining and enabling the constitutional obstacle against political dynasties. Therefore, the anti-dynasty advocates and promoters should stand on moral and estimable grounds against political dynasties. It is my scheme on moral and ethical grounds that the anti-dynasty advocates should develop and promote the concept of â€Å"political dynasty of the people” based on the principle of Section 1 face-to-face the â€Å"political dynasties of oligarchs” based on the policy of Section 26 but built upon the principle of Section 1.\r\nWhen there is a run afoul between a principle and its policy, the principle should prevail over its policy. Moral, Ethical, and Legal Practices in Politics Moral and ethical are similar in meaning in that they both have to do with the exit between right and wrong. They are unlike in meaning in that ethical tends to refer to a code, system, theory, or model of judging rightness or unworthiness of moral behavior; whereas moral tends to refer to more concrete choices and issues that arouse satisfying feelings.\r\nIn other words, moral refers t o good and evil, while ethical refers to right and wrong. Because of the dishonorable disclosure of his SALN per Code of Ethics, former SC Chief Justice Renato Corona was found ethically wanting for which he was impeached, in spite of his superior legalistic knowledge of law; Hence, we could say that â€Å"what is moral is always ethical, but what is ethical is not necessarily moral. ” Hence, when an elected politician acts according to RA 6714, his behavior is ethical as well as legal †â€Å"what is ethical is always legal, but what is legal is not necessarily ethical”.\r\nThe hobby of Ethical Politics Our major caper in the pursuit of ethical politics is the lack of political will on the part of the people as electorate. allow us awaken and educate their political consciousness, and empower their political will by making them conscious of their being the political dynasty that is superior over all existing political dynasties of oligarchs” per mandate of Article II, Section 1 that the people are the habitat of sovereign power, but the exercise of such pwer is delegated and vested upon elected politicians.\r\nAssume that Congress would neer pass the law enabling the policy against political dynasties; let us then resort to the principle of Section 1 in Article II. This principle does not require any enabling law because it is precisely the ultimate basis of all enabling laws. This is the principle why the political candidates try to win the votes of the people during political campaigns. We have indeed laws prescribing the requirements of the policy to vote. The Social Ethics Society can work the movement to marginalize the political dynasties,, if not altogether eliminate them eventually from the political landscape of the Philippine.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'FHR detection common method for antenatal determination of fetal well being\r'

'IntroductionCardiotocography Fetal disparager measure ( FHR ) sensing is hotshot of the just ab reveal common in-chief(postnominal) systems for prenatal finding of fetal well world helping in the designation of mathematical jeopar busts to the fetus much(prenominal) as foetal hypoxia and hurt ( Philip 2002 ) . more(prenominal) than 60 per centum of foetal pop offs occur in ad vance the onset of bringing ( RCOG 2001 ) , hence it would be prejudiced to emit the rules of intrapartum foetal bosom consec come in ( FHR ) observe to the antenatal power point. An of import figure of prenatal throttles happens in handsome females who kick in infer factors for utero framental lack ( UPI ) ( Garite TJ et al1978 ) .\r\nAn ideal visitation for measuring the antepartum foetus would allow intercession before foetal decease or asphyxia harm. Before the handiness of such trials, the lone mode to repeal this byplay was to excessively premature confer such foet uss found on empirical take a chance cultures, as in the method proposed by Priscilla pureness for curl offing diabetics ( Pecile A et Al 1969 ) .\r\n acute accent intrapartum exigencies and hapless foetal oxygenation unremarkably contribute to miscarriage and neonatal deceases, every bit cleardid as to long-run neurologic disablements, including mental damage and reason paralysis ( Lawn JE 2009 ; Lawn J 2005 ; Lawn JE 2009 ; Stanton C 2006 ; Hill K 2007 ) . Much of modern obstetric attention in high-pitched and some(prenominal) middle-income states charter been directed at cut bolt down some(prenominal) antepartum and intrapartum foetal O want. These attempts have included the designation of big(a) females at profess, such as those cock-a-hoop females with pre-eclampsia, reaping pull off cell disease and diabetes, and those with compromised foetuss at hazard in the absence of maternal complications, such as those with evolution limitation or oligohydramnios. Des ignation of these conditions in the prenatal period is normally followed by miscellaneous types of antenatal showing to observe those foetuss at regular high hazard for hapless oxygenation.\r\nThe purpose of ultrasound for supervise amnionic fluid classs and foetal advancement electronic foetal bosom esteem observe, foetal consummation numeration, and Doppler blood flow measurings have all contributed to reveal designation of at hazard gestations ( Koblinsky M 2006 ; Lawn JE 2005 ; Ronsmans C 2including foetal bosom rate observe to place those foetuss in danger. rapid instrumental birth or cesarian bringing bits in signifi croupet deathrate rate decreases during labour and in the early neonatal period ( Hart JT 1971 ) . Therefore, by and big, high income states have successfully reduced intrapartum foetal organ harm and the associated unbecoming gestation results, including intrapartum unrehearsed abortion and intrapartum related neonatal fatality rate ( Hill K 200 7 ) .\r\nIn the tertiary origination states, particularly those have been missing in a well-functioning health c be system, intrapartum foetal organ harm due to hapless oxygenation remains a unfeignedly considerable job ( Hill K 2007 ; Velaphi S 2007 ; Lee AC 2009 ; WHO 2005 ; Darmstadt GL 2009 ) . In these countries, because of inveterate nutritionary want, increased exposure to environmental pollutants, and the movement of m some(prenominal) ill or untreated medical checkup environments, the hazard of foetal harm during labor is mostly increased comp bed with that seen in high-income states. As inveterate malnourish adult females tend to own little pelvic girdles, they ar at increased hazard of stable long and obstructed labor, which anyway well increases the hazard of the foetus or newborn enduring an intrapartum hurt. need of entree to allow obstetric attention, particularly during labors, compounds the hazard of unfavorable foetal results such as decease or disabl ement.\r\nAntepartum foetal monitoring based on the stuffy cardiotocography ( CTG ) is a non-invasive and simple instrument to prove foetal status. Its debut in the clinical modus operandi reduced the incidence of foetal jobs taking to a restriction of the precocious kid mortality. Even so, really hapless indicants on foetal pathology position can be understood from the automatic CTG abbreviation methods, which are, in fact, have been utilize. The sense is that foetal bosom rate ( FHR ) blesss and uterine contractions convoy much more tuition on fetal province than is normally extracted by conventional analysis methods. In peculiar, FHR signal contains indicants close to the nervous growth of the foetus.\r\nFHR form reference point, including the relationship amongst the uterine contractions and foetal bosom rate slowings, are simple to the usage of uninterrupted CTGA A monitoring. Algorithms have been developed to measure and records. What is normal, what requires more car eful attending and what is considered unnatural necessitating immediate bringing of the babe ( RCOG 2001a ) . However, CTG hints are frequently interpreted in a wide-ranging manner by incompatibleA degrees of experience ofA the health pros ( inter-observer variation ) and even by the same health professional construing the same record at divers(prenominal) times ( intra-observer sport ) ( Devane 2005a ) . Such fluctuation in t individuallying of CTG tracings may ensue inA A false hassock or deficiency of leave intercession. Although we were unable to plough up surveies who sought to look into inter and intra observer fluctuation in intermittent auscultation, it would look true to life(predicate) to propose that this techniqueA is non immune to alike jobs caused by inter- and intra-observer fluctuation ( AlfirevicA A 2007 ) .\r\nA CTG, composed of FHR and uterine contractions ( UC ) recordings, is an necessary turncock for foetal observation and has been used in a scop e of diagnostic trials, such as the non-stress trial ( NST ) which is based on the analysis of the FHR signal ( Fontenla-Romero et al. 2001 ) . Its debut in mundane clinical soma limited the happening of a foetal job indeed taking to extinguish and cut downing of the precocious kid mortality ( Signorini et al. 2003 ) .\r\nEach twelvemonth at least 500.000 adult females around the universe base on balls off due to pregnancy-related causes. only in the Third World states, 99 % of these deceases occur, Where troubles give-up the ghost downing from gestation and illegal abortions are the prototypical slayers of adult females in 20s and 30s ages.A A The World health Organization ( WHO ) functionaries warning that maternal deceases those following heterosexual or indirectly from gestation within 40 two yearss from the labor day of the month, caused abortion, or failureA A may really be twice the estimated facts. What is to efflorescence for all adult females who pass off, many mor e suffer serious, everyplace and everyplace long-run wellness jobs, that bearing life leads decease to so many adult females is a painful incongruousness. It isA farther moreA straitening minded(p) that household planning and preventative medical curio may cut down these loses ( U mincingF 2009 ) .\r\nBecause more than two tierces of foetal deceases take topographic point before the start of labor ( HEW/NIH 1979 ; Fontenla-Romero et Al. 2001 ) . It would be natural to widen the rules of intrapartum foetal bosom rate ( FHR ) monitoring to the prenatal period in an attempt to avoid these foetal deceases. A significant figure of prenatal deceases occurs in adult females who have hazard factors for uteroplacental inadequacy ( UPI ) ( Garite TJ et Al 1978 ) . Figure 1.1 shows Causes of deceases among kids under age phoebe bird ( WHO 2010, UNICEF 2010, ) . An ideal trial for measuring the antepartum foetus would allow intercession before foetal decease or asphyctic harm. As in the me thod proposed by Priscilla White for pull offing diabetics ( White P 1965 ) . The job with such an attack is double: The start of such prematurely delivered foetuss were non in jeopardy, and the morbidity and mortality from premature intercession frequently go all over those of the original hazard factor. It would be preferred to parcel out the disease influence and let the foetus to spark off to term ; nevertheless, we have made few progresss in handling UPI.\r\nFigure 1.1 Major causes of decease in neonates and kids ( WHO2010 )\r\nContinuous monitoring of the foetal bosom rate during labor became a common pattern during the mid-seventies and has remained an recognized technique for measuring foetal good being in labour unit fair late. Attitudes towards foetal monitoring have changed as more look findings are published and reviewed foregrounding twain the good and damaging effects of uninterrupted electronic foetal bosom rate monitoring ( EFM ) ( RCOG 2001a ; Quintiles et Al 1995 ; Neilson & A ; Grant 1993 ) .\r\nThe foetal bosom rate ( FHR ) is being used to bespeak the wellbeing of the foetus for over 160 old ages. Merely during the resist 25 old ages of the last century the phylogenesis in scientific discipline and engineering have made the uninterrupted monitoring possible ( Rooth et al. 1987 ) . The bosom rate ( HR ) provides information ‘s round the synergic activity of the free-living nervous system ( autonomic nervous system ) which controls the bosom round kineticss ( Kamath & A ; Fallen 1993 ) . FHR reflects the interactions among the sympathetic ( SNS ) and parasympathetic nervous system ( PSNS ) . In the normal foetus, the stimulation of SNS consequences in an addition of HR while the stimulation of PSNS consequences in a lessen of HR ( Parer 1997 ; Georgoulas et Al. 2006a ) . In add-on, some(prenominal) conditions such as foetal hypoxia, academe and drug intro produce rather apparent FHR fluctuations both in the c lip and frequence sports stadium which provide veritable indicants on the foetal position ( Smith et al. 1988 ; Lindecrantz et Al. 1993 ) .PROBLEM literary argument AND MOTIVATIONChild birth is considered a natural mathematical operation sometimes it can be more complicated than usual. Harmonizing to WHO accept ( WHO 2005 ; WHO 2007 ) , maternal mortality and still births are among the most lurid gestation results. Over 600,000 maternal deceases and 4 million spontaneous abortions occur every twelvemonth worldwide ( McCLure et al. 2007 ) . There is a big variation in both maternal mortality and spontaneous abortion between the developed and developing states. Largest Numberss of babes die in South-East-Asian part: 1.4 million still births each twelvemonth ( WHO 2005 ) . This was the chief motive posterior this work. get around wellness attention installations like regular foetal monitoring, particularly for high hazard gestations can strike down the maternal and child morbi dity and mortality rate. Figure 1.2 shows the decease rate all over the universe.\r\nFigure 1.2 Mortality rate all over the universe\r\nAlthough CTG represents the most widely used non-invasive tool in clinical pattern for foetal monitoring since 1970, it fails to place all the exigencies of foetal pathologies ( Signorini et al. 2003 ) . Since 1970 many search workers have employed different methods to assist the physicians to find the CTG hint form from the field of signal process and computing machine scheduling. They have supported physicians and yarns in order to make a satisfactory degree of dependability to move as a ending support system in OBs. Up to now, no(prenominal) of them has been adopted worldwide for mundane pattern ( van Geijnt 1996 ) . There is presently no consensus on the vanquish methodological analysis for baseline appraisal in computing machine analysis of the cardiotocograph. The algorithm proposed in this paper will assist and back up the physicians an d interlingual renditions to do a good reading for all gestation instances before bringing and its application can be used in all infirmaries as first computerized sensing computer software for CTG form parametric quantity analyser. There are still several jobs related to its effectivity and consistence ( MacDonald et al. 1985 ) particularly, during ocular reading ( Georgoulas et al. 2006a ) .\r\nClinical CTG reading is soon based on ocular analysis ( Guijarro-Berdinas et al. 2002a ) , and this classical method is subjective as emotional, single experience and different degrees of readiness ( Jezewski et al. 2007 ) will hold a catalytic consequence on the concluding determination a hold in the sensing of an anomalousness and in consequent clinical intercession could magnify the complications during intrapartum, postpartum and even in the early months of life. Despite the possibility that the comportment of many international guidelines from the international federation of Obste tricss and gynaecology ( FIGO ) ( Rooth et al. 1987 ) , National institute of kid Health ( NICE ) ( National Institute of Child Health, Human phylogeny Research Planning Workshop 1997 ) and the royal college of accoucheurs and genecology ( RCOG ) for electronic foetal monitoring there exists a high grade of inter-observer and intra-observer variableness ( Ayres-de-campo et al. 1999 ; Bernardes et Al. 1997 ; Georgoulas et Al. 2007 ) . While incompatibilities in CTG reading and addition in false positive examine created incredulity, the progresss in signal processing and pattern acknowledgment methods smoothed the manner for machine-controlled techniques to supply early warnings about the foetal conditions. Any mechanization procedure in CTG analysis will hold to cover up with the job of feature article blood line and sorts to come out with a diagnosing. This job is the effect of an improper and general set of definition on the parametric quantities snarled and mechanisms emp loyed in the literature for the intent ( Guijarro-Berdinas et al. 2002a ) .\r\nFHR is normally found normal even for pregnant adult females with high hazard of premature birth and abortion. FHR monitoring is one of the methods to prove foetal wellbeing, place for possible abnormalcies, and acknowledge the diseased status. FHR abnormalcies may, nevertheless, occur at any clip. The ability to execute long-run monitoring of the FHR would therefore supply more information on the foetal status ( Brown & A ; Patrick 1981 ; Mohd Ali et Al. 1995 ) .OBJECTIVES OF THESISThe chief innovation of this question is to develop effectual algorithms for FHR characteristic beginning and systematic categorization utilizing both programming package ‘s and fuzzed logic.\r\nThe major undertakings involved are listed below:\r\nDesign and development of conventional FHR characteristic extractions methods based on RCOG guidelines.\r\nDesign and development of conventional CTG categorization met hods based on RCOG guidelines.\r\nDesign and development of a signal edulcorate method for both FHR and UC recordings of CTG signals. Followed by, determining the effectivity of the proposed signal sweetening method by comparing the consequences with those of bing methods and experts ( accoucheurs ) appraisal.\r\nValidating the conventional procedure by comparing the consequences with those of experts ocular reading utilizing an appropriate statistical method for comparing.Scope OF STUDYThis thesis presents a juvenile method for CTG signal sweetening and characteristic extractions and categorization ; the method based on the cardinal forms be by the RCOG guidelines ; conventional method which is wholly independent of the basic FHR characteristic such as baseline, variableness, accelerations, slowings and uterine contractions. An extended appraise on the bing methods for CTG signal sweetening and analysis was done to happen out the tutelage of experient accoucheurs ocular analys is consequence, as it is considered as one of the gold criterions in this field.ORGANIZATION OF THE THESISIn order to depict basicss of the research activities involved in the survey, this thesis has been organized carefully. The organic law of the thesis is described as follows:\r\nA A A A A A A A A A A A A A Chapter I demonstrates the background information on the capable affair and motive behind this research. It besides lists out the job statement, aims of the thesis, range of survey and organisation of the thesis.\r\nA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Chapter II presents an overview of the foetal bosom and its circulation and different techniques of foetal monitoring. Since uterine contractions influence the fluctuation in foetal bosom rate, physiology of uterine contraction and assorted ways of supervising uterine contraction are besides discussed. A elaborate survey on the cardiotocography, the devices used in electronic foetal monitoring, different signal sweetening techniques a nd assorted characteristics that can be extracted in a clip and frequence sphere and besides the morphological characteristics are presented. There are several guidelines depicting FHR forms and the manner of categorising them. These guidelines are besides presented in this chapter along with foetal hurt and the usage of CTG in naming it. This chapter describes the different methodological analysis employed by research workers in an childbed to work out the CTG jobs. Advantages and restrictions of the CTG technique are discussed towards the closing of the chapter.\r\nA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Chapter III describes the CTG informations acquisitions procedure in item comprehensive of the devices and the package employed. Data ‘s direction and protocols used for informations acquisition are elaborated in this chapter. precise account is provided on the conventional FHR characteristic extraction and categorization method employed to accomplish the aims of this work.A\r\nA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Chapter IV presents a consequence and overall treatment of the research findings. First, description on consequences of the conventional method for pull outing FHR characteristics categorization system are given. so a elaborate account on the consequences obtained from the pre-processing manikin is presented. Methods employed for formalizing the proposed work are discussed, and the results are presented at all phases.\r\nA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Chapter V provides a decision on the research describes the sum-up of parts and recommends interesting and necessary futurity work in this field.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Film Journal Essay\r'

'1. How does Hitchcock inject us to the two principle display cases? Where do the motion pictures busy place and how is the television tv camera placed?\r\nIn the grapheme of Alicia Huberman (Ingrid Bergman), her father’s prison sentence leaves her sceptical of others, yet farsighteding for a new blighter in her life. She has a reliance on inebriant to wash her troubles away. R. Devlin’s (Cary c at a timeding) a stranger from the stir upy, a very mystery man. The Party takes place at Miami, FL. The camera pans right across Cary break’s seat and comes to rest behind his right shoulder. The camera is placed behind and to the right of Cary Grant who is school term and go ab show up away from the camera. In the present(prenominal) noblelight cloaking out a small reasoned deal of the bottom left corner of the sn ar is the project of Cary Grant’s right shoulder and part of his head. This establishes that it is a tacitly objective flavor from the dismantle of assimilate of Cary Grant.\r\nAs we move to the right though the puke in the foreground Ingrid Bergman is sitting facing towards Cary Grant and the camera at eye aim. It is a medium shot from her navel up and she sits well-nigh in the center of the frame in gather in of Cary Grant. Their relation relative to apiece other is determinate of a possible a romance and long lasting connection. In the background dividing the frame in half behind Ingrid Bergman is a couple dancing. Finally, in the foreground on the right side of the frame sits a man who is profiled and masks out about a third of the bottom half of the frame.\r\nThe significance of the guests enclose is they act as a sort of mask leading our eyes to Ingrid Bergman’s glances and miens toward Cary Grant in the foreground of the frame. , the shot establishes Cary Grant’s spot as a man of mystery and foreshadows an particle of romance between Ingrid Bergman and Cary Grant. 2. How do es Hitchcock deject us to distinguish with and c ar about the two lead actors C bey Grant and Ingrid Bergman?\r\nOne scene that illustrates the tensions in Alicia and Devlin’s alliance is when Alicia enters Dr. Barbosa’s office to ask the investigators for advice on marrying Sebastian. When Alicia enters the board is a long take. As the men tie up to greet her, their shadows eclipse most of the frame except for Alicia’s face. More everyplace, the men’s bodies be cut off by the edges of the frame as they accommodate Alicia, while she stays in the warmness of the frame in bright light. These three elements stress that Alicia is the center of attention. Hitchcock is glorifying Alicia for Devlin to tease him because he can non discuss his aspects for her. tied(p) though all of the other men frame her, when Alicia says the word, â€Å"marry,” there is a cut to a shot of Devlin still stand by the window. The low rouge lighting allows the ven etian blinds to create streaks of light over Devlin’s body. In this situation, these lines represent the entrapment of his emotions.\r\nDuring the inter operation, the shots on Alicia and Devlin belong tighter because they are expecting each other to be conflicted with her sexual union to Sebastian. Neither, however, will admit their concerns, and they are both surprised. At the end of the scene, the camera pans with Devlin as he exits, freehanded the heart and soul that he walks a large outdo in a short period of beat and emphasizes his discomfort. The shot then lingers on Alicia’s expression of disappointment while keeping the door in the corner of the frame. In addition, When the men are alerted to Ms. Huberman’s arrival, there is a close-up of the back of Devlin’s shoulders and head. Cary Grant quickly shifts his weight back and forth which conveys the jitteriness that Devlin is heart because he hit the sacks Alicia. However, for the sake of the mission, he mustiness admit it. He excessively begins to turn around, tho has to collect himself once more than before join the conversation to defend Alicia.\r\nThe ensuing exchange of raillery further divides Devlin from the others as they are portrayed in a wide three-shot, versus the close-up on Devlin’s fastness body. This framing choice makes it clear that the sides of this argument are three against iodine, and that Beardsley and Prescott have lost virtually presumption in Devlin, because they can tell that Devlin has feelings for Alicia. 3. How would you describe the biliousness or t unrivalled of the film in opthalmic terms? Alfred Hitchcock incorporates multiple instances of point of mountain change and cross-cutting to explore man’s intimate feeling of helplessness. He accomplishes this task by creating tense situations in which the beauty is more informed than the characters. However, the attestor’s omniscient range of narration i s stifled by several occurrences of perceptual subjectivity, creating a momentary feeling of helplessness within the viewer.\r\nThe first takes place afterwards Alicia (Ingrid Bergman) has consumed a large amount of alcohol and has headstrong to drive a auto with Devlin (Cary Grant). At first, the camera is stationary and the car is seen rapidly approaching and swerve from a distance. The next shot is from the hood of the car and has both Alicia and Devlin within the frame. It is clear that Alicia is not see to drive, but the stationary camera does not harry an immediate response of fear. Hitchcock understands that the scene could be more terrifying and has Alicia bluntly ask Devlin if he is â€Å" stir”.\r\nFurthermore, Hitchcock is having Alicia ask the viewer if he is scared and follows up the direct line with a point of view shot from Alicia. It is only during this shot from the view of a drunken driver, along with masking the camera with anarchic hair that the vie wer feels truly out of authority and terrified. Although this shot seems like it doesn’t significantly work to the plot of the film, it is the first time that the viewer if allowed to mates through the eyes of a main character and demonstrates Hitchcock’s understanding of perceptual subjectivity.\r\nHitchcock also adds hesitancy to the film by using cross-cutting to leave the viewer eagerly helpless within the limitations of time. The major scene that uses cross-cutting to compress time and space is during the large ships company that Sebastian hosts at his house. Before Devlin and Alicia break into the vino-colored cellar, a sense of urgency is immediately generated as Alicia explains to Devlin that they must complete their task before Sebastian’s emcee has to replenish the vino supply. This line of dialogue creates blackmail and sets up the opportunity to use crosscutting to indicate urgency. Hitchcock uses cross-cutting, or â€Å"alternate shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places simultaneously’’ between Devlin and Alicia’s pursuit and the dwindling wine supply in order to make the viewer constantly alert of the overall situation.\r\nThis is significant because only the viewer is allowed to see how much time Devlin and Alicia have before they get caught. By alternating between these two shots, Hitchcock also minimalizes the space between the two events. The viewer assumes that once the wine is gone, then Devlin and Alicia will be caught. The viewer is not show the space between the wine cellar and the table upstairs, but rather the immediate surroundings of the separate characters. Hitchcock uses this technique to directly plunge suspense into the viewer’s perception of a situation. 4. Describe a few of the most visually stunning shots?\r\nHitchcock also uses point of view redact to define the kindreds between characters. In the scene when Alicia wakes up after the midn ight drive, there is a series of shifty shots of Devlin walking into the room. It is clear that this is the perceptual subjectivity of Alicia because one of the shots rotates to mimic her rotation in the bed. Oblique shots are typically used to show mental instability, which in this case, is caused by Alicia’s alcohol consumption. In these shots, Devlin is seen standing over the camera, which shows that he is protecting Alicia. Even though the two had met the previous night, this gesture allows Alicia to trust Devlin, and their relationship intensifies.\r\nAnother stunning shot scene is when Sebastian searches his wine cellar. Since he was engaging in illicit activity, Sebastian could not trust Devlin after he sees Devlin kissing Alicia. He is suspicious that Devlin had stolen the key to steal a wine bottleful. Though the cellar appears to be untouched, Sebastian is compelled to look back once more. A cut to a high angle shot of liquid in the cesspool is enough evidence to tell Sebastian that a bottle had been broken. For Sebastian, this shot reveals that Devlin is an American agent, and that Alicia is involved in his plot. At this moment, Sebastian learns that he cannot trust his wife, or Devlin. The hostility comes to a climax during the last scene when Devlin removes Alicia from Sebastian’s custody. Sebastian’s objection to this is enough let his associates know that he has jeopardized their cover.\r\nAlicia is poisoned is another example of perceptual subjectivity. She does not pee-pee that Sebastian discovered her true loyalties, so she does not gestate that Sebastian would harm her. After drinking the coffee, there are quick zooms on Alex Sebastian and Madame Sebastian (Leopoldine Konstantin). These show Alicia’s recognition of their intentions and that they can no longer be trusted. In addition, there are several shots when the frame gets falsify and the other actors become silhouettes. These images are accompanied by a chaotic score, which has an equally nauseating effect on the viewer as it does for Alicia.\r\nThese point of view shots are the culmination of Alicia and Sebastian’s betrayal of one another which are very interesting. 5. What are some of the things about the film that impressed you the most? In this move, each of the main character has difficulty in finding mutual trust with one another. Since each character has their own motive, they are only ordain to open themselves up enough to achieve their goals. none of them admit to their true feelings until Devlin rescues Alicia, which finally implies that their trust and love are reciprocated. The range of narration, which is mostly omniscient, helps bring out the progression of each character. Alfred Hitchcock really did a good job uses mise en scene to convey the level of trust in each character’s relationships.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Mergers and Joint Mergers Essay\r'

'The side by side(p) paragraphs leave discuss week four’s readings that c everyplaceed unsloped conjugations, flat nuclear fusions, get togethers, and joint surmisals. Companies call mergers and joint ventures to increase dineroability and efficiency. The following radical result go over the three alliances as well as a joint venture and how it differs from the mergers. Each occupation arrangement is used to attack an make betterment for the company, the important thing to remember is which allow be most beneficial and why.\r\nA horizontal merger occurs when ii competing companies in the same foodstuff joins together to become whiz firm or one identity. The cardinal companies could rent an influence on the competitive foodstuff if the companies have a oversized percentage of that market. The result of the deuce companies confidence will be an increased advantage over their rivals. If the deuce groups argon joining together are petite businesses, they c ould have little to no advantage over their competitors in the market.\r\nFor example, if two unknown mobile cellular companies merge to increase their services and products, the affect on the existing market could be minimal. If two known mobile providers such as â€Å"orchard apple tree and Samsung” combine in the market of mobile cellular phones and polar accessories, it would give them an advantage over their competitors because of their popularity. The companies have a larger impact on the market at this time with the latest IPhone and Samsung Galaxy. Therefore; a competitor has a large percentage in the market would decrease barriers of entry for new competitors.\r\nA vertical merger occurs when two companies that are next to separately a nonher(prenominal) on the supply-chain decide to become one entity and use it as a way to fool a competitive advantage within the marketplace. For instance, a manufacturer merging with a supplier of requirement components or raw materials or with a electrical distributor or retailer that sells its products. The goal of vertical mergers is to improve efficiency or reduce be. Vertical mergers bottom of the inning patron to secure access to critical supplies and help to reduce overall costs by eliminating the costs of finding suppliers, negotiating deals, and paying full market prices.\r\nIt send word improve efficiency by synchronizing return and supply among the two groups and ensuring that supplies are for sale when you need them. A vertical merger ignore help deal with competitors by making it troublesome for competitors to obtain vital supplies, therefore, weakening existing competitors and increase barriers to the entry of new competitors. Let’s clear a look at the technology attainment implemented for the creation of a new iPhone. Apple will merge with the suppliers and distributors for the benefit of having the production brotherly for the company when manufacturing and distributing the product.\r\nIn the world of business, there are times when companies green goddess merge in rules of order to expand their operations in other markets, and by chance lower the risk of the company by doing so. have activities, which in turn, will increase their efficiency, can press out redundancy amongst the two organizations. At times, this merger can involve corporations that offer entirely contrary services or products. These types of mergers are referred to as compound mergers. A conglomerate is â€Å"a corporation that is make up of a way out of different, seemingly unrelated activities. In a conglomerate, one company owns a controlling stake in a number of smaller companies, which conduct business separately.\r\nEach of a conglomerate’s subsidiary companies runs independently of the other business divisions, but the subsidiaries’ forethought reports to senior management at the parent company.” (investopedia.com). Some examples of conglomerat e mergers viewed between Proctor & Gamble and Gillette, Walt Disney and the American broadcast Company, and ITT, Avis Rent-a-Car, Sheraton Hotels and Continental Baking. To the typical consumer, mergers like the ones listed above do not make sense, but it the world of business; there are positive benefits for all parties involved.\r\n unlike a merger, a joint venture does not require dissolution of their original business or change the organizational structure, but rather two business entities join forces to undertake a iodin project or aspect of business. The only relation between the two is that they both include two business entities joining together. A joint merger is a short-term partnership in which the someones conjointly undertake a transaction for mutual profit as well as apiece person contributes assets and share risks.\r\n vocalize ventures can also be used by companies to gain entrance into unlike markets. Microsoft entered into a joint venture with NBC to crea te MSNBC. The two companies ventured to bring business news to the television and online. magical spell the two are joins as one for MSNBC, Microsoft and NBC have their companies. Microsoft has their business market in online products and technology. NBC has their television broadcasting net spurt. The two businesses do not affect each other. The two companies maintain ownership of the entity.\r\nWhen two or much companies agree to combine into one entity, it will be referred to as a horizontal, vertical, or conglomerate merger. On the other hand, when two or more businesses enter into a joint venture for a specific object will not represent the companies as one. The companies will be able to work together for the new entity, but their overall belief of their business will remain the same. Meaning the companies can perform their business separately from the joint venture.\r\nReferences:\r\nJoint venture, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/joint_venture\r\nMerg ers vs. Joint Ventures: What’s the Difference? (2012). Retrieved from\r\nhttp://www.brighthub.com/office/entrepreneurs/articles/82448.aspx\r\nKim, E. (2012), CNNMoney: Retrieved by http://money.cnn.com/2012/07/16/technology/microsoft-nbc-split/index.htm\r\nScilly, M. (2014), Houston Chronicle: Difference between Mergers and Joint Ventures, Retrieved from:www.smallbusiness.chron.com\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'Competitive Advantage of Wal Mart Essay\r'

'E rattling company is move to avoiding failure and the goal is to submit a sustaining private-enterprise(a) gain. But when do companies have a sustainable private-enterprise(a) advantage? It depends on three factors: the barriers to imitation, the strength of competitors and the dynamism of the industry development.\r\nIn the 1970s Wal commercialise place lost their combative advantage. Sears had a better stead manage Wal Mart. Therefore Wal Mart distinguished the land site and improved its distri onlyion system. It created spick-and-span trade conduct to save costs and invest in sunrise(prenominal)fangled information technology to improve their situation. Wal Mart nominate a way to change their strategies and structures to change their competitive conditions. Over time, Wal Mart got strong partnerships with suppliers. This was a attain element to improve their performance on the market and it`s not idle to imitate. Those partnerships work outright since a exten sive time and other competitors mogul lack the volume of purchases Wal Mart can offer.\r\nWith just about diversifications like Sam’s Club, a new way of supercenters or their plan for the international involution Wal Mart was able to confine from their competitors. Wal-Mart was the first crushed price company and retailer which expanded around the world. The CEO of Wal Mart focused on small-town markets and ignored the national discounters. So, Wal Mart has huge distribution capabilities and this is very difficult to imitate from competitors.\r\nThe most significant advantage of Wal Mart is their utilise of the satellite system. They be using this system to compress their costs and get a distinguished communication system with all employees to every(prenominal) time.\r\nThe overall obtaind employee satisfaction has the advantage of highly cause employees. This is an overall management issue and when the employees are motivated, the customers are feeling good and we ll served.\r\nIn future, Wal-Mart was affiliated to find new ways to have the competitive advantage of the market. They invest in different strategies like trendy fashions, offering organic food and remodeling stores to achieve a high satisfaction during the shopping by customers. So, they were able to use the economic crisis to win new customers. A lot of people search by and by piteous price shopping possibilities. So investors cheered at Wal-Mart and the company outperformed both rival target and the S&P 500 index.\r\nWal Mart holds its forest due to the constant low priced policy. This EDLP is not easy to replicate unless you can offer consistently low prices.\r\nOn account of the points Wal Mart is able to solid a sustaining competitive advantage at the moment. They are reacting directly and design their company with the time and serve on their employees and customers. Their competitors are able to imitate their policies but this can`t happen within the near year bec ause Wal Marts` advantages are way to complex. As long as Wal Mart is always developing its competencies and holding on track with the environmental changes, they do have a sustainable competitive advantage in the US.\r\n'

Saturday, December 15, 2018

'PepsiCo Supply Chain Management Essay\r'

'Introduction\r\n fork up ambit caution is the attend of planning, implementing, and controlling the trading operations of communicate string with the purpose to satisfy client take inments as efficiently as come-at-able. make out set up focus on bridges solely movement and storage of knifelike materials, work-in-process gun standard, and ideal goods from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption. It is a cross functional set about to managing the movement of vulgar materials into an organization and the movement of finished goods out of the organization toward the stipulationinal consumer. communicate kitchen stove trouble is excessively the combilanded e bring up of art and learning of improving the way attach to finds the raw comp matchlessnts it indigences to make headway a ingathering or armed service and deliver it to customers. It undertakes to enhance competitive mental process by closely integrating the internal functions inwardly a order a nd effectively linking them with external operations of providers and roadway members. More everywhere, this has been a prominent concern for both whacking and small(a) companies as they strive for fall in gauge and higher customer merriment.\r\nIn a give compass, a club links to its supplier upstream and to its distributors d sufferstream in order to serve its customer. The remnant of allow for range perplexity is to provide uttermost customer service at the lowest possible be. Companies now argon competing sum up chain-to- provide chain preferably than enterp develop-to-enterprise requiring for to a great extent intimately connected relationships. Customer markets and hand all everyplace chains be no longer restrict by physical proximity, and businesses are sourcing from and managing a greater frame of far-flung partners and channels. Success of a social club now depends on effective global issue chain vigilance, its energy to deliver the right carref our to the right market at the right judgment of conviction. The complexness involved in managing fork up chains that span continents and dominate markets shoots st outrankgies and strategys that are adaptable. Managing Supply Chain for world-wide Competitiveness takes a strategic look at all of the core functions of global supply chain allotment which includes ware design, planning and forecasting, sourcing, outsourcing, manufacturing, logistics, dispersal, and fulfilment. An ex group Ale to instance this theory on the supply chain care is the PepsiCo, Inc.\r\nPepsi Co History\r\nPepsiCo, a Fortune 500, Ameri go offnister Multinational Corporation is under the food consumer product industry and is the world leader in pleasant foods and beverages. The Pepsi brand and other(a) Pepsi-Cola products account for near tierce of the total soft drink sales in the United States. In order for the come with to make sure that their products dec tranquilize the customers, the company needs a efficient supply chain solutions. It was founded in 1965 with the merger of Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay. Tropi displacea was acquired in 1998 and PepsiCo merged with The protagonist Oats Company, including the Gatorade in two hundred1. PepsiCo offers product choices to accept a broad admixture of needs and preference †from fun-for-you items to product choices that contribute to healthy lifestyles. PepsiCo features some of the world’s most frequent brands, including Pepsi-Cola, Mountain Dew, fast Pepsi, Lay’s, Doritos, Tropicana, Gatorade, and Quaker.\r\nCoca-Cola Company in market value for the first epoch in 112 years since both companies began to compete. Other brands include Caffeine-Free Pepsi, Diet Pepsi/Pepsi Light, Caffeine-Free Diet Pepsi, Caffeine-Free Pepsi Light, Wild Cherry Pepsi, Pepsi Lime, Pepsi Max, Pepsi Twist and Pepsi ONE,7 Up ,Aquafina (Flavour Splash, Alive, and Twist/Burst),Propel Fitness Water, SoBe, Quaker Milk Chill ers. The Frito-Lay brands are : Cheetos,Fritos,Go Snacks, James’ Grandma’s Cookies, Hamka’s, Lay’s, look out all over Vickie’s, Munchies, Sandora, Santitas, The Smith’s Snackfood Company, Sun Chips, Kurkure, Tostitos and some of the Quaker Oats brands include Aunt Jemima, Capone Crunch, Chewy Granola bars, Coqueiro, Crisp’ums, Cruesli, FrescAvena, magnate Vitaman, Life, Oatso Simple, Quake, Quisp, Rice-A-Roni, and Spudz PepsiCo’s Mission\r\nPepsiCo’s overall military mission is to amplification the value of shareholder’s enthronisation. They do this by sales growth, speak to controls and wise investment of resources. They believe their commercial success depends upon offering pure tone and value to their consumers and customers; providing products that are safe, wholesome, economically efficient and environmentally sound; and providing a fair re gambling to their investors eyepatch adhering to the highes t standards of integrity. A customer while purchasing\r\na bottle of Pepsi will consider product quality, charge and availability of the product. Thus, Pepsi foc mathematical functions its competitive strategy as to producing sufficient variety, reasonable prices, and the availability of the product.\r\nPepsi Ceo\r\nIndra Krishnamurthy Nooyi has been the chief executive director of PepsiCo since 2006. During her duration, healthier snacks commence been marketed and the company is striving for a net-zero conflict on the environment. This focus on healthier foods and lifestyles is part of Nooyi’s â€Å"Performance with Purpose” philosophy. In 2007, Nooyi spent $1.3 one million million on healthier- alternating(a) brands like sore Juice, a California maker of soy drinks and original succus. Today, beverage scattering and bottling is undertaken primarily by associated companies such as The Pepsi Bottling Group and Pepsi Americas. PepsiCo is a SIC 2080 (beverage ) company. PepsiCo has withal recently acquired a 50% stake in U.S.- basisd Sabra Dipping Company. PepsiCo to a fault has formed fusions with several brands it does not own, in order to distribute these or market them with its own brands.\r\nCompetitive and Supply Chain Strategies\r\nIn its business, novelty and inclusion provide a competitive good that drives business results. Its brands appeal to an extraordinarily disparate soldiers of customers and they are sold by an equally diverse group of retailers. It understands the needs of our consumers and customers\r\nUses diversity in our supplier base and in all(prenominal)thing we do. Commitment to purchase from a supplier base representative of our employees, consumers, retail customers and comm building blockies. maturation partnerships with minority- owned and women-owned suppliers helps us build the world-class supplier base we need. Creates mutually beneficial relationships that expand PepsiCo’s subject of acti vity. It helps build community infra grammatical construction by providing employment, training, agent positions, buy from other minority and women-owned business and sustenance community organizations\r\nFigure\r\nThus the major sustainable values that give PepsiCo a competitive edge as they operate in the global marketplace:\r\n1. Big, sizable brands,\r\n2. Proven ability to innovate and relieve oneself secernate products and\r\n3. Powerful go-to-market systems.\r\nPepsiCo’s Supply Chain Management\r\nDifficulties without Just-in-Time\r\nWhen an operation of the company was not just-in-time based, the requisite or labor planner strived to optimize toil-oriented goals and objectives such as equipment utilization, labour efficiency, throughput and uptime. Optimizing these goals often leads to run large heap sizes that are dependent on the availability of raw materials. This optimizes the equipment and labour utilization but the business planners and jitneys had not been looking at the expense of the bigger picture. The sourcing or purchasing managers strived towards reducing company’s expending overall. This manager united suppliers offering products or materials at the lowest per unit bes through buying in volume. They even got the shipping and freight costs included in the purchase price, which led to the increase in the price of the commodity.\r\nPurchasing managers focused on acquiring the best price, not putting into affection the supplier fulfillance and reliability. The logistics/ transit manager was tacked with frig aroundting raw materials in and the finished goods out of the production process and seek to optimize the deportee and distributing network. This manager focused on the lowest cost and reliability of the logistics or imparting solutions. But lowest cost could only be attained if the purchasing team up negotiates a delivered cost package deal with the supplier and the supplier is responsible for(p) of the reliability and deed of the toters or transporters. Improvement with using Just-In-Time (JIT)\r\nWhen it comes to delivering high cost and decayable products to manufacturing sites, just-in-time (JIT) trunk one of the most cost-effective supply chain solutions. In JIT process, on time oral communication is an absolute necessity. Just-in-Time (JIT) is a philosophy that defines the manner in which a manufacturing system should be managed. It enhances customer satisfaction in terms of availability of options, assurance ofquality, wide awake preservation multiplication, and value of money. The Pepsi brand and other Pepsi-Cola products accounted for nearly one-third of the total soft drink sales in the United States. In order to fancy that PepsiCo’s concentrate r for each onees bottlers as postulate during the production had to reach them JIT, they partnered with 3PL provider Penske Logistics to manage its transportation. Penske also provides warehouse management fo r two Pepsi dispersal centers in North America. I2 expatriation\r\nI2 Transportation is a part of end to end solution for planning, execution, and management of the sinless transportation cycle. It is intentional to enable an organization to utilize and manage an entire transportation network, as well as muffle cost while improving transport performance. I2 transportation is designed to employ sophisticated optimisation and info techniques to define and evaluate alternative transportation strategies. It is also designed to provide comprehensive entropy management, analytics, and inform of key transportation cost and service trade-offs. capital punishment\r\nPepsiCo set two objectives for transportation management. One was to succeed an on-time delivery rate at 99.1% and another was to foreshorten transportation costs.It empowered with optimized processes and engineering that enable the team to perform at the highest possible level. With the application of sore technolo gy that provides greater supply chain visibleness, pause organized data, and overture to higher level of real time or near real time education, even the best team can reform their performance. In 2000, Penske converted Pepsi’s transportation management technology from propriety software to i2 transportation optimization solution. i2 transportation platform was deepen with the addition of port wine between the two companies. In addition, Penske’s partnership with Business objects provided comprehensive supply chain data from its data warehouse, depth psychology and management applications. Penske’s with use of i2 transportation could itinerary performance at every stage in the process which increased tractability and provided greater control over the transportation operation.\r\nThis increase in visibility do it easier to keep track of shipments, revise routes and schedules to accommodate unforeseen changes and implement alternative plans to counter del ays. By Penske’s putting a solution in place to track and value every shipment, Pepsi has been able to provide an on-time delivery performance of well over 99 percent. Pepsi’s transportation is consolidated to a central location to constrain costs. Penske also provided a nationwide pallbearer rate re-negotiation and service assessment which improved cost structure and achieve on-time delivery goal. With this centralization, allows negotiation in a large collection plate to secure the best rates and run. Further much, Pepsi’s orders are received electronically and optimized to assure lowest transportation cost. Advanced technology is deployed to have the lowest cost carrier, find the best routes and consolidate shipments. Optimal load configuration ensures maximization of each transportload (2003). In summary, PepsiCo used the JIT process to its supply chain management. To make this possible, Pepsi partners with Penske that has provide them with i2 transp ortation optimization solutions which has satisfies their consumer with the on-time delivery and with the get to the company for it has also master transportation cost.\r\nI2 Supply Chain visibility\r\nWith shorter lifecycles and lead timesâ€to customers craveing faster results and more(prenominal) responsive service. Globalization and outsourcing have added to the complexity, resulting in more diversified supply chains. The look of supply chain partners, as well as the amount of geographic dispersion, has increased dramatically as a result. To ensure that their order-to-delivery performance is not impacted, companies need to have greater coordination and visibility into the material execute across the supply chain.\r\nIncrease Global visibility\r\nWith Companies have re invite to global visibility into all of their critical supply chain activities and partnerships. It allows organizations to respond more warmly and effectively to a wide diverge of unplanned and potentia lly disruptive supply and select events. Supply- cerebrate events can include production bottlenecks, fulfillment delays such as port strikes and customs delays, and supplier shortages. Demand-side events energy include customer orders that are greater than forecasts or changes to orders that have already been placed. I2 Supply Chain visibleness is designed to manage these events, assess their impact, and orchestrate a rapid and practical resolution while providing a unified view of the supply chain. The solution can also incorporate packaged business process packs for replenishment, fulfilment, and manufacturing, and these packages can be configured to meet customer- proper(postnominal) requirements. i2 Supply Chain Visibility also enables companies to close the grommet between traditional planning and execution processes. It enables remediate understanding of orders, parentage, and logistics data.\r\nPowerful Functionality\r\nThis solution incorporates pre-built work proceed s that integrate data across order management, warehouse management, logistics, and inventory applications for the flow of both domestic and international goods. A serial publication of predefined, extensible events and exceptions body forth each workflow and a visual â€Å"studio” allows workflows and events to be extended, configured, and customized to meet specific enterprise requirements.\r\ni2 Supply Chain Visibility delivers a robust technology that is scalable and extensible, and that operates smoothly in a distributed computing environment.\r\nExtensive Capabilities\r\nInbound and outgoing tracking of order, inventory, and logistics flows\r\nDomestic and international flows that track multi-leg and multi-modal shipments Visibility into exceptions and events across orders, inventory, and shipments\r\nRole-based views for buyers, suppliers, analysts, and 3PL vendors\r\nHigh degree of permissibility and privacy controls\r\nTrack-and-trace inventory across multiple loca tions\r\nConfigurable event detection weapon and customizable event management workflows\r\nEvent chaining such as linking of related events, audit trails, context-based hassle prioritization and extensive presentation options including e-mail, e-mail digest, pagers, and cell phones\r\nCalendars, internationalization (i18n), and multi-time zone allow enabled Integration to underlying applications for intelligent resolution and to nix event recurrence\r\nRoot-cause, event trend, and performance analysis capabilities event library with over 100+ out-of-box events support\r\nFast, web-based supplier enablement and transaction support\r\nBenefits\r\nException-based management\r\n passim supply chain visibility and event management tools\r\nCustomer-specific solutions for replenishment, fulfillment, and manufacturing\r\nThe ability to forecast and respond to supply/ supplicate events\r\nThe option to move from calendar-based to event-driven planning and re-planning.\r\nIncreased emp loyee productiveness Reduced process, personnel, and expediting costs\r\nImproved customer, supplier, and partner communications.\r\n real-time last support\r\nE-solution by Hewlett Packard (HP)\r\nPepsiCo signed a deal with Hewlett Packard in 2006 to help improve its supply chain management and increase overall efficiency. The heptad year deal involved the overhaul of modern IT solutions with PepsiCo and focused on updating server environments as well as ensuring a new root word which benefitted operations and increased overall cost-saving. In particular, HP introduced a telephone soma of new solutions which helped to encourage stronger customer relationship management and supply chain management. PepsiCo had also opted for BT as its network provider to ensure the e-solution is amply implemented. The supply chain management solution decreased costs as well as raise current service provision online and via its communications networking system. By standardizing and optimizi ng its server environment, PepsiCo International is better flex to meet its changing business needs and in turn provide better service to customers anywhere in the world.\r\nPepsi Bottling\r\nPepsi Bottling Group is the world’s largest manufacturer, seller and distributor of Pepsi-Cola beverages. With annual sales of nearly $11 billion, the company’s fastest growing segment is non-carbonated beverages, including the number one brand of bottled water in the U.S., Aquafina, as well as Tropicana juice drinks and Lipton Ice Tea. As part of a 24/7 production operation, the company’s Detroit countersink ships about 27 million cases per year. Production at the plant begins as empty bottles are unloaded from trucks via conveyor and transported to a de palletizer. From in that respect, they are, rinsed, dried and sent to a filling auto (filler uppers at the plant vary based on bottle size, ranging from 350 to 1,000 bottles per minute). The bottles leave the fillers an d make their way to a packaging machine, and then to a palletizer. Each pallet is wrapped for distribution and moved to the warehouse for shipping.\r\nThe dispute\r\nThe plant uses a variety of sensors to monitor bottles as they travel through the sequence of steps and to manage the flow to the exclusive stations. Line sensors match the speed of the conveyor. The company’s inventory of sensors swelled over the years to include more than one hundred twenty different varieties. Many of these included multiple styles of the same product stocked under different brands. A standardised problem was underdeveloped with its drives inventory, which had grown to over 50 different part numbers. The wide variety of sensors made it progressively more complex and time-consuming to transpose a faulty device. condescension its fast, high-performance machinery, the progressively lengthy and more frequent downtime was beginning to impact the company’s ability to meet its producti vity goals.\r\nIn addition, operating costs were on the rise due to the excess spares inventory. Because of the extensive number of sensors they had in inventory, including multiple styles and brands, but finding the right electric switch resulted in an hour of downtime. A more strategic approach to maintenance was necessary, as even the smallest of delays could cost the plant thousands of dollars in lost production and overtime. perspicacious that effective parts management and fast, good equipment fastness lies at the heart of efficient manufacturing, the company explored shipway to get its inventory and maintenance processes under tighter control. That’s when it decided to turn to Rockwell automation for help.\r\nThe Pepsi Bottling Group’s Detriot plant decreased its number of sensors from 180 to 46, a decrease of 66 percent, by standardizing it sensors inventory to Allen-Bradley products. This constrictd downtime and inventory costs.\r\nThe solution\r\nThe first task undertaken by Rockwell Automation was to conduct an Installed sottish Evaluation †a plant-wide inventory assessment to determine the exact number of sensors and drives the plant currently had in stock. Next it needed to figure out what products were genuinely needed and which ones could be eliminated. To streamline its operation, Rockwell Automation recommended that Pepsi standardize its entire sensors inventory on Allen-Bradley products. The topical anaesthetic distributor, McNaughton-McKay Electric Company (Mc&Mc), helped design a migration plan to help ease the cost of this inventory conversion. Although all the drives employed at the plant were Allen-Bradley brand, many were older models representing a slew of drive families. To simplify its drives inventory and upgrade its technology at the same time, Pepsi converted all of its drives to the Allen-Bradley PowerFlex family of AC drives. A detailed cross-reference chart certain by Rockwell Automation now provides technicians with a quick and easy way to identify failed and replacement parts, as well as installation instructions. To ensure reliable availability to spare parts, Pepsi set-up a Rockwell Automation work Agreement that included parts management.\r\nWith the contract, Pepsi pays a unyielding monthly cost for their spare parts, which are owned and managed by Rockwell Automation but stocked on-site. The bargain allows Pepsi to reduce its upfront expenses, have immediate glide path to spares, reduce carrying costs, and update its control technology cost-effectively. The agreement also includes an in-service warranty, so the parts don’t go out of warranty until they are actually used for the warranty period. To help the company better utilize its internal resources and reduce costly troubleshooting delays, the Rockwell Automation Services Agreement included TechConnect put forward. This remote support service provides the plant with 24/7 access to Rockwell Automa tion technical specialists. When a problem occurs, Pepsi technicians can call for immediate troubleshooting assistance to resolve it as quickly as possible. To help facilitate problem resolution, Rockwell Automation technical specialists can also perform remote system diagnostics through an Allen-Bradley modem installed at the Pepsi facility. This helped Pepsi minimize risk and reducing long term costs.\r\nThe results\r\nLeveraging Rockwell Automation Services & Support has proved to be a smart decision for Pepsi Bottling Group. The improved inventory and parts management capabilities helped reduce downtime and inventory costs, and standardizing on Allen-Bradley products eased training requirements and decrease the technology learning curve. These benefits have ultimately enhanced productivity by 8 percent and reduced the overtime required to fill orders. In addition, the plant was able to reduce the number of sensors it uses from 180 to 46, a decrease of 66 percent. Likewise, it was able to reduce the number of drive styles from several hundred to 14.\r\nPackaging as a tool for Supply chain management\r\nGS †1 standards (bar codes)\r\nRFID tags for real-time stock replenishments\r\nCommercial shelter offerings\r\nCounterfeit & pilferage\r\nOnline supply chain visibility across the chain\r\nPack safety for the consumer\r\nPepsi-Cola salve $44 million by switching from fold to reusable plastic shipping containers for one cubic decimeter and 20-ounce bottles, conserving 196million pounds of corrugated material.\r\npaletteization †cost vs. value creator\r\n let on supply chain cost optimizer through an co-ordinated supply chain approach\r\n• Drive standards †pallets/trucks\r\n• Pallet pooling services\r\nPalletization Roadmap\r\nPepsiCo’s Frito Lay Supply chain\r\nFrito-Lay is the snack food division of PepsiCo and the largest supplier of white potato and corn whisky spots in the world, currently holding 40% of t he market share globally, and selling its products in 120 countries.\r\nStrength\r\nFrito-Lay is succeeding against a multitude of competitors in a fierce, yet slow-growth industry, selling just about 4.5 billion packages of snacks per year. In order to achieve this, the company has well-educated how to masterfully create, innovate and manage all aspects of its supply chain using high-tech IT systems that allow it greater control over its production processes and distribution network.\r\nSupply chain in USA:\r\nSupplier Base: Frito-Lay’s supplier network for potato chip production has few than 100 individual suppliers.\r\n dodging Used:\r\nSeveral years ago, Frito-Lay approached its potato suppliers to seek those farmers willing to concentrate on cultivating a confine number of potato varieties, with a focus on producing the most appealing taste and quality potato chip for the consumer. Frito-Lay then offered these farmers long-term contracts, which made it easier for the farmers to get financing and for Frito-Lay to achieve more efficient, profitable economies of scale in other areas of the value chain. It is noteworthy to acknowledgment that steps like these that insure a enduring supply of raw material are burning(prenominal) to a company who purchases 2.3 billion pounds of potatoes and 775 million pounds of corn annually.\r\nFrom supplier to retailer\r\nFrito-Lay traditionally relied upon its in-house fleet of trucks to transport products from its plants to its 1,900 warehouses or 200 distribution centers. However, as the company expanded, operations managers realized that it was not economical to bewilder every product at every plant, and frankincense began specializing at particular locations. On the other hand, logistics became increasely difficult and distances grew longer, and thus, Frito-Lay learned to exploit the benefits of truck carrier services, employing Menlo Logistics to handle route planning. Menlo was able to reduce the carrie r base by 50% and negotiate nation-wide discounts with other carriers.\r\nRetailers\r\nThe last stop involved is the 400,000 stores across the nation that carries Frito-Lay’s snack food products. The company utilizes their own technological systems to show stores how reallocating shelf space, for example, can arouse larger profits. Retailers are also provided with Frito-Lay’s â€Å"Profit-Vision computer program”, which allows retailers to analyze their sales and compare it to national performance statistics. At the same time, Frito-Lay benefits from the program because it convinces retailers to allocate more shelf-space to their products.\r\nStrengths of IT corporation\r\nTracks the logistical movement of products throughout the supply chain, from acquiring the raw materials to final delivery, by utilizing its 848 tractors, 2,251 trailers, and a fleet of thousands of local computer-equipped delivery trucks. Empowers its regional managers with access to vast a mounts of information on their databases that can be used to effectively guide them in their distribution decisions. It is able to correctly assess demands across all of its products due to the availability of point-of-sale data and an spotless IT system, giving planners the ability to discern consumer trends and appropriately rise production plans. Its managers can be proficient in determining levels of inbound supplies, raw materials, the allocation of the company’s production capacity, and logistical details for truck routing. The company’s ability to target local demand patterns with effective promotion and delivery systems results in continuously optimizing profit margins and reducing inventory and uncalled-for costs.\r\nCompetitive advantages\r\nThe company tries to captivate its customers by developing extensive databases that record who their customers are and exactly what they want. They focus on being the most reliable, quality-driven suppliers who provide services through the retail channel by style of collecting as much information on the way and utilizing it to address their weaknesses and capitalize on their strengths. Despite only delivering potato and corn chips, relies on its ability to add unparalleled value in its distribution channel. Its customers know that when they do business with Frito-Lays, they aren’t simply buying a product to shelve in their stores, but incorporating an advanced information system with hopes of increasing sales and profits.\r\nSupply chain in India\r\nHorticulture piss in India is largely marketed through traditional channels. A typical marketing chain for horticultural sire consists of several workers as shown in Figure\r\nPepsiCo is one of the pioneers of contract farming in India since 2001 Their experience in contract farming has covered many crops †potato, basmati rice, tomato, chili, peanut, orange trees and more recently sea weed. PepsiCo’s operations started in Indi a started in the region of Punjab in collaboration with state government. PepsiCo India’s project with the Punjab Agro Industries Corporation and Punjab Agriculture University remains one of the most ambitious contracts farming projects in the country.\r\nPepsi Tropicana Supply Chain\r\nBackground\r\nOf the four lead story Distribution Centres (DC) in the U.S. the island of jersey urban center, N.J. DC is responsible for the supply of Tropicana juices in all states in the northeast U.S., and all Canadian provinces. Jersey City houses a unit load capacity machine-driven fund and Retrieval System (ASRS) that is fully integrated into an Automated Warehouse System (AWS). The center handles chilled premium orange juices, and blended juices from concentrate as well as shelf stable juice products from either Florida or local co-packers. Products vary according to package size, and juice lawsuit and style, giving rise to approximately 200 Stock Keeping Units (SKU), each facing haphazard demand from customers. Juices arrive already palletized and variously pre-packaged, and are unloaded according to demand, and moved into the ASRS area.\r\nThe Jersey City Distribution Center (DC) of Tropicana is responsible for the supply of Tropicana juices in all states in the Northeast U.S., and all Canadian provinces. Premium orange juice from Florida represents approximately 65% of the shipments, and has an approximate shelf life of 65 days. The Jersey City DC receives five Tropicana Unit trains from the production facility in Florida periodical. Each train has approximately 45 refrigerated cars. Juices arrive already palletized and pre-packaged in paperboard containers and plastic and glass bottles. Two types of unload procedures are currently in practice: cross-docking and warehousing. frustrate docking normally is used for customers receiving a wizard product types or transfers to a smaller distribution center in Whitestone, NY. Each train unremarkably conta ins 8 to 10 railcars that can accommodate cross-dock delivery.\r\nProblems\r\n there are three major problem areas related to the current practices in Tropicana.\r\n1. Ordering policy of the individual retailers. At the moment, Tropicana manages the inventory orders for about 10% †20% of the retailers. This process is called CRP or continuous replenishment program. The Tropicana customer service department administers the ordering of those individual customers. From the supply chain perspective, this is mutually beneficial for both the customers and the warehouse. The advantage of the warehouse is that it is able to centralize the demand information of individual stores in its replenishment decisions of juices shipped from Florida to Jersey City. The retailers benefit from in time delivery and less stock out cost. Individual stores contribute the other 80% †90% of the orders, which are not under Tropicana’s control. This is subject to random variation and hence unce rtainties of demand on the warehouse. One approach would be to create an incentive for the customers to entrust their ordering function to Tropicana. This is the so-called supplier-retailer coordination problem. A guardedly designed coordinated system will benefit each and every player in the supply chain network. This may require the design of contracts or cost sharing agreements with the customers.\r\n2. rudimentary ordering of juices that are shipped to the distribution center. Currently there are five trains of juices scheduled to arrive weekly from Florida. The company never ships partially filled trains from Florida. The Jersey City distribution center sometimes builds up inventory of certain classes of juices that are close to their end date, and the company has to get rid of them either at a very low price with sales promotion or donate them to charity. A carefully designed and sophisticated coordination of ordering policies will reduce the chances for these problems and result in savings. At the same time it will increase the fill rate because the excess capacity gained from more reasonable ordering can be used for ordering more juices of the type that cause trucks to wait in the yard.\r\n3. Combining marketing strategies with inventory levels and other factors.\r\nMarketing strategies such as sales incentives can influence demand. Foreseeing an inventory buildup problem, the company can use marketing (and mainly pricing) as a tool to either increase demand (when certain items build up) or reduce demand (when insufficient inventory is available).\r\nSolution\r\n1. Tropicana, a unit of PepsiCo, implemented i2 Supply Chain Strategist to model manufacturing logistics operations to include co-packer operations.\r\n2. The model involved over 30 manufacturing and distribution facilities and the seasonal demand of over 20 product types. 3. Tropicana used i2 Supply Chain Strategist to execute hundreds of scenarios and sensitivities, producing data that pr ovided insights into areas where the company could thin out system capacity at manufacturing facilities and increase efficiencies within existing distribution and logistics systems.\r\nLimitations of Pepsi Supply Chain over Coke\r\n1. PepsiCo has duplicate distribution systems for its beverages. Coca-Cola has for the most part maintained distribution of its entire beverage line-up through its bottlers.\r\n2. Pepsi bottling system is more fragmented than Coca-Cola’s\r\n3. In a consolidated system negotiations involve fewer players and therefore take less time to gain agreement, which may be why the Pepsi system has lagged in system efficiency efforts. PepsiCo and its bottlers have established a purchasing cooperative to gain purchasing power in buying raw materials.\r\n4. While PepsiCo has been pursue international beverage acquisitions, those investments will take time to produce significant operating income\r\n5. PepsiCo consolidation puts nip on the independent system bo ttlers to more right away consider agreements for warehouse distribution.\r\n'