Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Literature Review of Health Promotions Grand Canyon University NRS 429 September 12, 2010 Literature Review Traditionally the United States health care system has been sickness-oriented. However, in the last two decades, a new paradigm has emerged. This new paradigm emphasizes wellness rather than sickness. As a result in this change in focus, health promotion is now an integral part of the nursing profession. This research paper will review current literature from three professional sources relative to the nursing profession and health promotion.This paper will analyze: 1. How is health promotion defined? 2. What is the purpose of health promotion? 3. How has the role of a nurse changed as the result of the emphasis on health promotion? 4. How are nurses implementing health promotion? 5. Identify, compare and contrast the three levels of health promotion prevention. Health promotion simply stated are the activities and behaviors that help individuals stay healthy. These behaviors an d activities include self-responsibility, physical fitness, nutritional awareness and stress reduction and management.In their research for Ã¢â¬Å"Brunner and SuddarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing,Ã¢â¬ Smeltzer and Bare (2006) state Ã¢â¬Å"health promotion can be defined as activities that by accentuating the positive assist a person to develop those resources that will maintain or enhance well-being and improve the quality of life. It refers to the activities that a person does personally in the absence of symptoms in an attempt to remain healthy. These activities do not be assistance of a member of the health care team. (Smeltzer & Bare, 2006).Health promotion in the United States has a single purpose. That purpose according to Smeltzer and Bare (2006) is Ã¢â¬Å"to focus on the person's potential for wellness and to encourage him or her to alter personal habits, lifestyle and environment in ways that will reduce risk and enhance health and will being. Ã¢â¬ T he role of nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s has changed dramatically as a result of the emphasis on health promotion. Historically, nurses focused on the diagnosis and treatment of a disease, sickness or condition and emphasis on health promotion was nonexistent. However, today that has all changed.Nurses are now expected to expand their primary care services to include psychosocial nursing, advocacy, behavioral science, counseling and advocacy in addition to patient assessment, clinical diagnosis and patient-case management. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Defining Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice: Expanding Primary Care Services,Ã¢â¬ Sherwood, Brown, and Wardell (1997) state Ã¢â¬Å"the role of the nurse practitioner continues to evolve in response to changing societal and health care needs as consumers in all settings seek increasing servicesÃ¢â¬ . (Sherwood, Brown and Wardell, 1997).Nurses implement health promotion strategies in a variety of ways. Due to the high level of credibility nurseÃ¢â¬â¢ s have with their patients, they greatly influence their patients with their passion. By emphasizing health promotion strategies such as self-responsibility, proper nutrition, exercise and stress management, nurses plant the seeds of wellness in the minds of their patients. While ultimately, it is up to the individual to make healthy changes in their lives, the role of the nurse practitioner plays a huge role in motivating individuals to adopt healthy habits.There are three levels of health promotion prevention. They are the primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention. These levels are stages of the disease process during which preventive actions can be highly effective. Primary prevention focuses on preventing illness or trauma. An example of a primary prevention intervention would be an immunization. The objective of primary prevention strategies is to reach as many individuals (who may be at risk) as possible. The majority of health promotion programs in the United States are implemented at this level.According to Liburd, Collins, Giles, et al (2007) Ã¢â¬Å"In the decades since chronic illnesses replaced infectious diseases as the leading causes of death, public health researchers, particularly those in the field of health promotion and chronic disease prevention, have shifted their focus from the individual to the community in recognition that community-level changes will foster and sustain individual behavior change. Ã¢â¬ Secondary prevention emphasizes early detection and intervention against illnesses and disease.An example of a secondary prevention strategy would be a screening program. The objective of secondary prevention strategies is to limit the spread of infectious diseases as well as treat those individuals identified with a disease or condition before the illness fully develops. According to Peek, Cargill and Huang (2007) Ã¢â¬Å"health care interventions improved the quality of care for racial/ethnic minorities, improved health outcomes (such as diabetes control and reduced diabetes complications), and possibly reduced health disparities in quality of care. Tertiary prevention focuses on recovery and rehabilitation after a disease, condition or illness has occurred. The objective of tertiary prevention strategies is to prevent and limit further patient deterioration resulting from a sickness, condition or disease. Joseph Betancourt and Joan Quinlan (2007) state Ã¢â¬Å"The paradigm of personal responsibility for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health, which includes the responsibility of patients to follow their physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions and adhere to their treatment plan, now carries great weight among health care providers. A careful review of the literature presented strongly indicates the fact that nurses are key components in the health promotion phenomenon. Their influence can be identified every step of the way. Their roles have changed (expanded) significantly in the last ten years. Nurses are no longer limited to explaining to individuals how to get well but also how to remain healthy. The importance of this change cannot be understated. In the article Ã¢â¬ËThe Future Role of Nursing in Health PromotionÃ¢â¬ the authors Chiverton, Votava and Tortoretti (2003) state Ã¢â¬Å"never before has health promotion been more important than it is today.Nurses in education, practice, and research settings participate in the advancement of health promotion not only to the mainstream but to the forefront of nursing practice. Historically, nurse educators have taught patients how to manage illness; in the future, the focus must be on teaching people how to remain healthy. Ã¢â¬ (Chiverton, Votava and Tortoretti, 2003).
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Introduction There are various conceptions existing in the aspects of definition, academic boundaries and major functions of the fields of human resource management (HRM) and industrial relations (IR). The essay critically discusses the comparison and contrast on the key features of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations in academic fields. On the base of review of the origins and transition of the tow subjects the paper will explore the general accepted definitions of the HRM and IR respectively. It will then go on to lay out theoretical dimensions of the two subjects, and looks at significant characteristics of HRM and IR. The last part assesses comparison and contrast between the two fields in the light of historical perspectives and literature review. Definition Transition of Human Resource Management The HRM terminology stems from the USA subsequences of human relations movement. In the counterpart, since the first British book on HRM published in the late 1980s, which was notably known as New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Storey 1989), there have been a large volume of published studies investigating the definition of HRM in diverse standing and approaches. Ackers (2003) provided a general term on the definition of HRM, Ã¢â¬ËHRM refers to all those activities associated with the management of work and people in firms and in other formal orgaisations. Although it is conceptualised by involving the entire breadth of HRM studies, it should be embodied to specific nature and pattern of the subject. Sisson (1990) sees HRM of four aspects of employment practice: an integration of HR policies with business planning; a shift in responsibility for HR issues form personnel specialists to line managers; a shift from the collectivism of management and, finally, an emphasis on commitment has further understanding of HRM. According to the classic work edited by Storey J (2007), HRM is defined as a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of culture,Ã structural and personnel techniques, which is a comprehensive understanding of HRM. Definition of Industrial Relations There is little doubt that Industrial Relations has become a subject of scholarly analysis since the end of the nineteenth century, when Sidney and Beatrice Webb (1984) couple published their classic series studies of the regulation of employment in Britain. Flanders (1965, 10) suggested, Ã¢â¬ËThe study of industrial relations may therefore be described as a study of the institutions of job regulationÃ¢â¬â¢, which prevailed for a time is beyond satisfaction of the academic study at present. The view that IR is the study of processes of control over work relations, and among these processes, those involving collective worker organization and action are of particular concern is more adaptable to generalise specific and precisely for the subject. (Hyman, 1975) Basic Theory of Human Resource Management In 1990, the launch of two influential journals, Human Resource Management Journal, edited by Keith Sisson at Warwick University, the International Journal of Human Resource Management, edited by Michael Poole at Cardiff facilitates the emergence of courses and models in HRM in universities and colleges. A large and growing body of literature has sprung up amongst which two notable theories is predominant leading, Fombrun et alÃ¢â¬â¢s (1984) matching model and the Harvard framework. Matching model focused on the connection between organizational strategy and HRM, in the meanwhile Frombrun et al divided HRM into four integral parts Ã¢â¬â selection, development, appraisal and reward stressing the significance of efficiency of work performance enhancement. Some commentators have even utilized the terms Ã¢â¬Ëhigh commitmentÃ¢â¬â¢ policies to substitute for HRM (Marchington, 2005). On the other hand, the Harvard framework (Beer et al, 1985) involve six basic components with a broader expand from the inside out , that is, situational factors, stakeholder interests, policy choices, outcomes, long-term consequences and a feedback loop. However, neither of the models pays close attention to the respects of employment relationship. John StoreyÃ¢â¬â¢s (2007) model is worth considering framework in HRM studies. Four key elements are summarized as foundational structure of HRM, that is Beliefs and assumptions, strategicÃ qualities, critical role of managers and key levers which activate HRM as an essentially tool and techniques for use by practitioners. However, many HR functions these days struggle to get beyond the roles of administration and employee champion, and are seen as reactive rather than strategically proactive partners for the top management. In addition, HR organisations also have difficulty in proving how their activities and processes add value to t he company. Only in recent years have HR scholars and professionals focused on developing models that can measure the value added by HR. Basic Research Interest of Industrial Relations Colling et al (2010) comment that Academic industrial relations is now outdatedÃ¢â¬â¢ either the problem of the Ã¢â¬Ëhuman factorÃ¢â¬â¢ in work have all been solved, or they are better addressed by new approaches such as Ã¢â¬Ëhuman resource managementÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëorganisational behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢, however, in the statement by the British Universities Industrial Relations Association (BUIRA), they strongly disagree the claim. During the initiative academic research in IR, predominant focus upon collective institutions and processes which embody trade unions, collective bargaining and strikes are the mainstream scope of IR study. Compared with the origin IR, modern IR emphasized on the experience of work, both individual and collective, and with all sources of the rules that govern the employment relationship. Therefore, IR was widely regarded as having two major subdivisions within it. The first dealt with the management of labour, the second with collective bargaining and methods of workforce governance (Russell Sage Foundation, 1919). By many accounts, industrial relations today is in crisis. In academia, its traditional positions are threatened on one side by the dominance of mainstream economics and organizational behavior, and on the other by postmodernism. The importance of work, however, is stronger than ever, and the lessons of industrial relations remain vital. Comparison and contrast of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations The interrelation between HRM and IR is complicated. In one sense HRM wasÃ considered as a subfield of IR in the early 1960s for majority of scholars, afterwards in prevailing contemporary conception HRM has largely been regarded as a separate subject underlying distinguish perspectives and divergent points of the field. However, HRM and IR do share some commonalities in matters of concern focusing on employment and workplace issues and recognition of the humanness of labour. Moreover, it is common to combine the two academic fields as one integral course named HRM and IR in contemporary university and college teaching. By contrast, John Storey (2007) proposes twenty-five dimensions to differentiate HRM and IR with the same key element in StoreyÃ¢â¬â¢s model (Table 1.1). Furthermore, from the research interest differentials, it can be concluded that HRM largely takes an Ã¢â¬ËinternalÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective on employment problem emphasizing the solution to labour issues, while IR basically has an external view focusing on the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ and communityÃ¢â¬â¢s solutions. The goal and function is not the same between the two fields. HRMÃ¢â¬â¢s primary goal is organizational effectiveness and takes a instrumental approach to promoting employee interests; IRÃ¢â¬â¢ aim is a combination of organizational effectiveness and employee well-being as well as employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s interests priorities. HR assumes conflict not inevitable and can be minimized by management; IR sees conflicts as inevitable requiring third-party intervention. HRM and IR are distinguished in various respects with different standpoints and approaches. Generally, IR provides a multi-layer discernment of employment relationships, interconnections between the workplace, the company, the sector, the national regulatory framework in the light of multi-disciplinary approach involving sociology, political science, economics, history and law. Frequently, HRM teaching accepts managementÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives uncritically, concentrates on activities at company level without exploring the societal and institutional environment, and has its disciplinary basis primarily in psychology and organizational sociology rather than the social sciences more broadly. Despite of the inevitable irreconcilable antagonisms between the two subjects, there is a closely link of HR and IR providing a complementary foundation of the exchange and development of the employment issues. Conclusion The essay discusses the definition of HRM and IR and significant featuresÃ in academic fields largely through an historical analysis of the two fieldsÃ¢â¬â¢ respective origins and development. HRM and IR fields are distinguished by numerous differences in their approach to research and practice. However, scholar on both sides have to give greater recognition to the fact that the different assumptions separating HRM and IR are only specialized tools for investigation and do not represent a full or universalistic explanatory model for studying the employment relationship for more explicitly research perspectives. Reference Ackers, P. and Willkinson, A. 2003. Understanding Work and Employment, Oxford University Press Bach, S(ed), 2005, Managing Human Resources, 4th edition, Balckwell Publishing Boxall, P and Purcell, J, 2008, Strategy and HRM, 2nd edition, Palgrave Bruce E.K, 2001,Human resources and industrial relations Commonalities and differences, Human Resource Review, 11(2001) 339-374 BUIRA 2008. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the point of Industrial Relations? A statement by the British Universities Industrial Relations Association Colling, T. and Terry, M. 2010. Ã¢â¬ËWork , the employment relationship and the field of Industrial RelationsÃ¢â¬â¢, in Colling, T and Terry, M (eds), Industrial Relations: theory and practice (3rd ed), Chinchester:Wiley, 3-25 Guest, D. (1987) Ã¢â¬ËHuman resource management and industrial relationsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, 24(5), September: 503-521 Hyman, R. 1975. A Marxist Introduction to Industrial Relations. Basingsotoke: MacMillan. Paul Edwards edit , Industria l Relations Theory & Practice in Britain, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1995 Marchington. M and Wikinson. A, 2005, Human Resource at work, 3th editon, CIPD, London Miller, P. (1987) Ã¢â¬ËStrategic industrial relations and human resource management Ã¢â¬â distinction, definition and recognitionÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, 24(4) July:347-361 Sisson, K. (1990) Ã¢â¬ËIntroducing the Human Resource Management JournalÃ¢â¬â¢, Human Resource Management Journal, 1(1):1-11 Strorey, J(ed), 2007, HRM : A critical text. 3rd edition, Routledge Redman, T . Wilkinson. A, 2001, Contemporary Human Resource Management, Financial Times
This essay briefly compares and contrasts a few salient features of life in ancient Greece andÃ medieval Europe. Familiarities The life in ancient Greece and during the middle age in Europe has tremendous impact on ourÃ lives today also. The effect of the ancient Greek lifestyle is direct and that of the middle ageÃ Europe is indirect.Ã The ancient Greeks have gifted to us system of governance like Ã¢â¬ËdemocracyÃ¢â¬â¢Ã and the master event of all masculine sports: the Olympic games. On the other hand, theÃ life style of middle age, gave rise to the age of new thinking, the renaissance. It was during theÃ middle age that intellectuals started their quest for knowledge, which led to an upsurge orÃ intellectual activities later. It was during the middle age that schools and Universities startedÃ being established across Europe. These gave rise to centers of learning during the renaissanceÃ period, later.( Daily life in ancientÃ Greece, life ). While studying the life style of ancient Greeks and the people of middle age Europe, oneÃ more familiarity that strikes the reader is that in both the cases, considerable stress was laid onÃ education of children.Ã In ancient Greece, children were educated at primary level at homeÃ mostly by the male slaves. The way education was imparted in the medieval period was slightlyÃ different. Schools had already come into existence, and concept of language, math and scienceÃ had started developing slowly.( daily life in ancient Greece, life ). Both the ages have given memorable gifts to mankind. The ancient Greeks have given usÃ 1)Ã trial by jury, 2)Ã the Greek mythology, 3) democracy,Ã andÃ 4) recreational activity likeÃ dramatics, while the middle age has opened the doors for establishment of schools for primaryÃ level and universities for the higher level education. The invention of GuttenbergÃ¢â¬â¢s printingÃ press, is the greatest gift from the middle age to mankind. The forts and structures built by theÃ rulers for protection of citizens and worship of God, during these ages, are remarkable pieces ofÃ architecture.( daily life in ancient Greece, history ) Contrasts The ancient Greek era is timed up to5th century B.C. while the medieval European age isÃ timed from 4th century A.D. to the 14th century A.D. Life in ancient Greece markedÃ theÃ development of one of the civilizations on this world, while life during the middle age is alsoÃ known as a dark age, because of the downfall of activities in almost all spheres of life.( daily lifeÃ in ancient Greece, life ) The biggest contrast between the two is that slavery existed in ancient Greece whereas it hadÃ no traces in the middle age Europe. Male and female slaves lived miserable lives and wereÃ treated like commodities by their owners. They did not even have a right to have their own name.Ã Slavery was so prominent in ancient Greece that there were as many slaves as the number ofÃ citizens in ancient Greece. The Greek civilization spread over a small geographic area whereas the middle age EuropeÃ encompasses the whole of the continent. Despite the fall of the Roman empire, the CatholicÃ church was the sole centralized authority to impress upon the rulers of all countries. In contrast,Ã the ruling system in ancient Greece was heavily decentralized. InÃ ancient Greece, there existedÃ a system of city-states. Each city was a state, governed independently. Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Argus and Megara were the main city- states. ( Daily life in ancientÃ Greece, life )Ã The similarities between the life in ancient Greece and in the medieval Europe are few,Ã whereas the contrasts are too many, and too prominent also. Works-cited page Daily life in ancient Greece, 2006, Retrieved on 4 May 2007 from: < http://members.aol.com/donnclass/Greeklife.html > Life & History, 2000, Retrieved on 4 May 2007, from: < http://www.medieval-life.net/ > < http://www.medieval-life.net/history_main.htm >
Monday, July 29, 2019
Digital electronics logic gates - Lab Report Example The same gates were again used to setup circuits that performed the 1Ã¢â¬â¢s and 2Ã¢â¬â¢ complements of a 4-bit binary. The first experiment required that we find, from the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s data sheet, the pin configuration or connection diagram for the 7402 and 7400 quad 2-inputs NOR and 2- inputs NAND gates ICs respectively, and then apply Vcc and ground to the correct pins. We found out that the ground is applied in pin7 and Vcc in pin 14. We then went ahead and setup the circuit as indicated in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Figure 1 is a NAND gate and thus the IC we chose to use is the 7400 IC; on the other hand, Figure is a NOR gate and thus the 7402 IC was used (Kumar 689). After connecting the input to a 0 and a 1, we recorded each output and produced the truth tables indicated below, Table 1 and Table 2. Given these circuit configurations only had one input and one output, the circuits implemented produced the following truth
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Persuasive message - Essay Example I was aware that some of the stockholders were not receptive to my ideas, and some of the officials did not want me to be promoted. I made it a point to mention the names of those whom I perceived to be hostile in a patronizing sound, as if the ideas injected in my project were suggested by them. I was aware they had a high level of interest, I was able to cut to the chase quickly, and went directly to the key messages (na 2004). Object of Persuasion: The product we were trying to sell is a residential property under the real estate industry. The competition with the other real estate companies for the kind of market we wanted to monopolize was quite stiff, particularly in the area where I will be transferred, which was not performing well at that time. I proposed to lower the selling price, and to allocate additional budget for special incentives for the Account Consultants, a kind of motivation that is badly needed in that area. Argument: I presented a graph, that depicted the tren ds in the sales productivity when there were promotions and when no promotions were offered to the customers. I had to defend my proposal because it entailed additional cost on the part of the company, which they were not willing to accede to at the start.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Women in Hunting and Gathering Period - Essay Example Thus while the men are engaged in productive labor, the women are engaged in unproductive household work that does not command the same amount of respect. Traditionally, the role of an individual in society has been defined and characterized by the personÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to home and society in monetary terms. Being tied down by the responsibility of childbearing, women in traditional, patriarchal societies have been viewed as an inferior race. Women have been confined to homes due to their traditional roles of cooking, cleaning and child rearing. However, a study of Paleolithic and Neolithic times has proved that this was not always the case. In the hunting and gathering societies, it has been noticed that women had a greater role in gathering food around their homes. Wermuth et al have defined womens economic power as being shaped by womens level of control over surplus and the relative importance of what they produce. They have also quoted womens economic control as being influenced by importance of womens labor, organization of labor and the gender ratio in the population. Wermuth et al have also referred to hunting and gathering societies as small bands of loosely associated families with low surplus and low inequality. Men have little power over women in these societies. Mutual cooperation is necessary for survival, and the division of labor between men and women is functionally and materially based. Despite their hunting role, men often interact closely with women and even with small children. Draper, Professor of Anthropology at Harvard observes that in the hunting and gathering society, women are more independent and powerful. They are not considered as subordinate to men and generally both the genders enjoy an equal status. As women in such societies contribute to gathering food for the familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ subsistence, they have greater control over the food (produce in this case) and enjoy an equal
Friday, July 26, 2019
Business Ethics - Essay Example She is told that it is harmless and owing to her lack of knowledge, she doubts that the hospital management is right in saying so. She cannot jeopardize her job on the basis of a doubt! LetÃ¢â¬â¢s analyze the matter with the utilitarian theory of ethics. The utilitarian theory of ethics says that any action whose consequences are good is justified. By reporting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s matter to her friend, Deborah would never be able to achieve a favorable result. Everybody in the management would suspect her to have leaked out the news and would take severe action against her in addition to firing her from the job. Besides, if she tells her friend, it would create a bad image of the hospital in the public eye. Hence, by leaking out this information, Deborah would never be able to do the ultimate good. She might suspect that this would at least save the life of the community, but she needs scientific knowledge to be sure enough! So the utilitarian theory of ethics suggests that Debora h should drop her plans of leaking this information. The reasonable limit of loyalty to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s employer is the very state of doubt that Deborah is in. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦acts should be classified as morally right or wrong only if the consequences are of such significance that a person would wish to see the agent compelled, not merely persuaded and exhorted, to act in the preferred mannerÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Utilitarian ethicsÃ¢â¬ ). Once she is sure that the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s waste dumping act has lethal implications upon the environment, she may break her loyalty with the hospital. By doing so, she may jeopardize her job, but this world is about much more than just earning money. She would sacrifice her job this way, but will be rewarded for her noble act and sacrifice by God Almighty. Certainly, things would have been different had Deborah been in a position of greater authority. A potential reason why the managers are not taking her seriously is the fact that she is nothing more than a
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Critical Review - Essay Example The inclusive settings may be community-based such as private preschool programmes in day care centres, or may be public school based preschool programmes. For inclusion to be successful, children with disabilities have to be provided with all the necessary supports, to facilitate their forming friendships with peers, to actively participate in all classroom activities, and to accomplish the individualised goals designed to meet his or her needs. Both the disabled children and their non-disabled peers benefit from the integrated environment (Power-deFur & Orelove, 1997). Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to write a critical review of the article by Odom (2000). First, the article will be summarised, followed by a background section giving a brief account of the reason why the article was chosen, its significance and the relevance to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s research interest. The critical review of the article will include an investigation of the topic and key issues raised in the paper; also the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s findings and suggestions; the arguments put forward by the article; and an evaluation of the strengths and shortcomings of the paper. In early childhood special education, it is now a primary service option to include children with disabilities with normally developing peers with typical growth patterns, in integrated classroom settings. This is a relatively new development, from the 1990s, although inclusion of preschool children was known since the early 1970s. There has been a gradual shift from special education programmes for school age children to those designed for preschool age children, to programmes in which children with disabilities are included in mainstream classrooms, with continued development in the settings offered for achieving improved outcomes (Odom, 2000). In this paper, the author Odom (2000) briefly investigates the literature available on the topic. Some research findings on
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Business Management - Term Paper Example But how is this done? Research reveals that employees may be motivated in a number of ways. One such is through recognition and reward as noted in the article Leadership Coaching: Employee Motivation Rewards In The Workplace. The article was written on August 15, 2012 by Mike Krutza and Jodi Wiff. It attempts to bring out the importance of employee motivation and what managers need to do in order to ensure that employees under them are motivated. One of the strategies identified by Krutza and Wiff is that managers must learn to praise and reward the deserving. They note that giving credit to teammates is very important. In this regard, they argue that a manager who gives spotlight on a coworker who is doing a fabulous job will most likely be recognized by the management. As such, they advice that a manager should ensure that an informal employee recognition award is established, which he would be comfortable creating, and overseeing, as well. The article also suggests that taking an initiative to develop an employee award system, is good since it also help the manager keep his job. The reason being, it shows that the manager cares about his teammates and the value put on team. In addition, they point out that for the manager to appear self-confident before his seniors, he should also praise his teammates for a job well done. Several management approaches have been developed that can be used to explain why this is so. The approaches include classical, behavioral, quantitative and contemporary. The objective of this paper is to relate the article Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership Coaching: Employee Motivation Rewards in the WorkplaceÃ¢â¬ to these approaches classical, behavioral, quantitative and contemporary. It will also relate the article to the organization structure of a company or business. Classical Principle The classical school of thought is based on managing the organization and workers more effectively, and falls under different groups: scientific, administrative a nd bureaucratic management. Scientific management is based on a number of principles such as the application of scientific methods to work in order to come up with the best way of accomplishing a given task in an organization. This implies that failure to establish the best way of accomplishing the organizations task is may lead to managers using actions which are inconsistent with the overall organizational goals (Griffin 16). Scientific management under classical school of thought suggests that employees should be carefully hired based on their qualifications and trained to do their jobs more effectively and efficiently (Griffin 14). Hiring of qualified and competent workers minimizes labor turnover within an organization and contributes to better work and ethics. Despite the fact that employees may be qualified, some may not be up to the task. Therefore, to ensure that employees are motivated, a manager would still have to organize for an award scheme for those to does their work better according to Krutza and Wiff (par. 1). This will increase the overall performance of the organization, thereby making the manager be recognized by top management as an important person in the organization which they cannot afford to loose. Scientific management principle also proposes that there should be genuine cooperation between management and workers based on mutual self-interest (Griffin 16). This aspect relates quite well with the article as the authors point out that the reward
The Importance of play in Childrens Cognitive and Emotional Development - Literature review Example These section discuses the concept of play makes children vulnerable to beliefs that in case they are exposed to most things. The have a higher probability of embracing chances of more preparedness (OConnor & Ammen, 2012). The elements are more susceptible to success promises and full preparation presented by special enrichment programs based on added anxiety regarding the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to predict the future adequately. Even though people are not in a position of assuring the kinds of skills needed, there are distinct character traits that produce children with a capacity of navigating within complex worlds while growing. The traits are inclusive of competence, confidence or mastery of the environment as well as deep-seated connectedness. Such children can care to others through creating the safety, security, and love which other children thrive in. Additionally, the art of resilience allows them to remain optimistic while advancing ability to rebound adversity while young people require essential character traits such as honesty, decency, generosity, compassion, and tenacity. Children have a higher likelihood of gaining these essential resiliency traits in home environments where parents and children spare time to collect together (Pellegrini, 2011). The goal is to focus on each other to achieve positive support, as well as unconditional love. Most families have higher success rates in navigating wider scopes of commitments in the absence of sacrificing high-quality time for parent-child involvement. However, the familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ ability involves an ability to maintain important parent-child time without compromising the hurried lifestyle. The families over-schedule leading emotional competencies to achieve well-buf fered children (Saracho, 2012). This section argues that play has integral executive functions among children is that it improves the
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The short story the lottery and conformity - Essay Example Conformity is valuable to the society because cohesion and smooth running of events and processes. A person who drives on the right side of the road is a good example of definition of conformity and illustrates its benefits through safe road usage. Deciding to act against the norm by driving on the wrong side of the road will however risk the life of the actor as well as the life of other road users. In the short story, the society is deeply rooted to its Lottery tradition and even though no one compels it to commit the murder act, it chooses to stand by its tradition. Even though the specific example identifies a wrong act, murder of an innocent member of the society, the author communicates the power of conformity to tradition that can help a society to achieve its objectives. Conformity therefore promotes retention of good cultural beliefs in a society and may improve resistance from negative practices from other cultures. The city residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ resistance to abandoning their culture and assume practices or changes in other societies demonstrates this. The author uses the black box and the lottery as symbols for illustrating this role of conformity. Even though the real box was lost and the current one is old, the villagers have chosen to stick by the two symbols and this shows the power of conformity that may facilitate a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s theme regardless of dynamism around the society (Jackson 2- 27). Conformity is also valuable to society because it allows us to adapt to the society in a normal way and for our own good so that we might not hurt ourselves later in life. Even though The Lottery only highlights the murder ritual, there could be positive values that the tradition facilitates. The societyÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the lottery also suggests that such values develop naturally and the uniformity means that an individual is less likely to be in
Monday, July 22, 2019
A midsummers night dream Essay Additionally, The nobles are a mirror image to the Mechanicals. The Mechanicals are completely opposite to the nobles. The nobles speak in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s elegant verse and are very rich and are also educated. Unlike, the mechanicals that do not speak in elegant verse but in proses and are lower class and are not well educated. The forest represents magic, instinct, love and dreams. It is symbolised by the fairies use of rhyming verse, and night. The prosaic Mechanicals here in the forest are another mirror image to the supernatural fairies. The Fairies are elegant; and speak in a four beat verse chant. So shall all the couples three. Ever true in loving be However, The Mechanicals are clumsy and earthly and speak in prose. I, One snout by name, present a wall. The mechanicals add understanding to the audience through love. In the mist of a supernatural war, the humble Bottom demonstrates something about the blind nature of love through his combination of dignity and foolishness. Reason and love keep little company together Bottom adds understanding to the audiences understanding by this quote. He explains that reason and love have nothing over love Bottom figures this out because he is ordinary, ands proving Theseus wrong. The Mechanicals main contribution is humour. This has the effect of diffusing tension. It grounds down the elevating romance of the lovers and the fairies, and adds to the audiences enjoyment. Shakespeare creates humour through various language techniques. One way in which he does this is by the comic effects of the names of the characters. Bottom name might prefer to a persons backside or an ass in which his head is turned into the head of an ass(donkey) In the play-within-a-play, flute plays Thisbe. The name Flute refers to a flute instrument, which is to a sour fruit Ã¢â¬Å"citrusÃ¢â¬ . This reflects his personality as he is bitter, serious and gets annoyed. High, pitched. In the play Flute has to put on a high voice as he plays a woman. Also Quince name refers Also the Mechanicals contribute humour by the misuse of their words. The mechanicals mix up their senses a lot in the play. The flowers of odious savours sweet an oxymoron is used here as Bottom mixes up his senses. The effect on the audience is obviously humour as it is a stupid mistake. As flowers do not smell horrible! The mechanicals also mix up senses I see a voiceÃ¢â¬ ¦. And I can hear my Thisbes face L187-188 [Bottom] Bottom un-deliberately mixes things up again by saying he sees a voice and hears Thisbes face. The effect on the audience is humour. The Mechanicals enhance the audiences understanding of the theme of love and it transforming power. Shakespeare uses humour to show the ugly can be made beautiful though love. ? What angel wakes me from my flowery bedÃ¢â¬ ¦I pray thee, gentle mortal, sing againÃ¢â¬ As the audience knows, Bottom cant really sing but the fact that love can change something ugly into something beautiful is what the Mechanicals add to the audiences understanding of the play. The contrast of the lazy Bottom and the beautiful Titania with her high status, her language and power underlines the transforming power of love and shows how people behave foolishly because of love. Although Bottom is ugly and uneducated he speaks wise words. Thou art as wise as thou art beautiful Shows that even though Bottom is ugly and clumsy his wise words about love Bottom shows the audience that love is unreasonable. The effect on the audience is that love is not about status, beauty or law. Which is what the Athenians believe love is about. Humour is used to explore the idea of drama and the conventions of the theatre in the play-within-the-play when Quince begins his prologue he takes away the drama and the tension from the play. He does by adding a speech before the play by reminding the audience a few things before the play starts I am to entreat you, request you are desire you to con themÃ¢â¬ Quince takes away tension in a humorous by telling the audience before hand that the Mechanicals are a little bit rubbish. Throughout the play-within-the-play Bottom dominates the play but misguides his own talent in many ways. Bottom throughout that play tries to dominate but makes silly while humorous mistakes. Ã¢â¬Å"O grim-looked nightÃ¢â¬ ¦OÃ¢â¬ ¦OÃ¢â¬ ¦OÃ¢â¬ Bottom repetition is entertaining as he is trying to make himself look like a good actor, He is trying to create this impression by using Ã¢â¬Å"oÃ¢â¬ a lot in his sentences. When Shakespeare uses the actors as the setting. Which are the wall and the moon. It shows the contrast of Shakespeare use of imagery to represent the scene, as there were no props and stage settings in those times. Also Flute says his lines all at once as the actors in the Elizabethan times would only know their own lines not the other actors. Which would be very humorous for the audience as the actors would be all jumbled up. The Mechanicals add enjoyment and understanding through the theme of love and through humour. The Mechanicals also contribute humour. And finally the Mechanicals increase the audiences perceptive of the theme of love and it transforming authority by using Bottom to say something intelligent about love. William Shakespeare uses the Mechanicals in the play for many reasons. Shakespeare uses the mechanicals to add understanding to the audience throughout the play. Also he uses the mechanicals for the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s enjoyment. Ã¢â¬Å"A Midsummers Night Dream is still popular for performers and audiences today as it is a play with bizarre and magical dreams and magic happenings thought out the play. Finally, because it is a humorous yet a moral play which anybody can learn from.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Schizophrenia: Treatment, Portrayal and Stigma ABSTRACT MENTAL ILLNESS AS PORTRAYED IN THE MOVIE A BEAUTIFUL MIND Associated Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenia The movie A Beautiful Mind is an adaptation of the book by the same name and is a biopic based on the life of Nobel Prize winning economist, John Forbes Nash, Jr. The movie portrays the symptoms and treatment for paranoid schizophrenia from which John Nash suffers. He has episodes of auditory and visual hallucinations and has frequent interactions with imaginary people. This paper attempts to present a reflective case study of the patient as presented in the movie. The patient when treated for hallucinations has certain negative reactions to the medicine, to overcome which, he avoids them, relapsing into his earlier condition. The patient mentions taking newer medications later on which also help him decide between the reality and delusion. At the end of the movie, the patient is seen to have overcome this disorder by learning to ignore his hallucinations. This paper discusses alternate treatment as well as recommendations for future mental health nursing practices. In the movie, A Beautiful Mind, the protagonist, demonstrates the classical symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia. The protagonist, John Nash, suffered from schizophrenia which was only discovered at a later stage. During his college years at Princeton, Johns room-mate and best-friend was a man named Charles, who is later found out to be one of Johns hallucinations (A Beautiful Mind 2001). As time goes by, his hallucinations become more frequent and violent as he soon believes himself to be working for the US government on a top secret project to which no one, not even his wife had access to. When he started missing classes a psychiatrist was called in to look into his condition and he found the stay at the asylum unpleasant and believed it to be a Soviet plan to stop him from working on his secret governmental mission. His wife had trouble believing the psychiatrist at first as she believed her husbands story to be true and very real. But she realized the problem when she went to his c ollege to find out what he used to do during work and found magazine clippings pasted all over the room. She also discovered the unopened confidential envelopes that were supposed to be sent out to Mr. Parcher, the person who put John up to the secret mission. The story revolves around how John has to face reality when his make-belief world is so real to him. He can finally confront his reality when he realizes that Charles niece, Marcee, never grew any older than when he had first met her. With continual medication, he learns to ignore the fictional characters in his life and starts to teach again, at Princeton. He goes on to win the Nobel Prize in Economics and lives a happier life. Paranoid schizophrenia is only one of numerous categories of schizophrenia which is a chronic mental disease. People suffering from this kind of mental illness are not able to interpret reality in a normal way and are said to suffer from psychosis. Around 40 percent of schizophrenic cases are of paranoid schizophrenia. The symptoms usually start being displayed at later ages from around the ages of 25 or 30. The typical symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia include hallucinations and delusions that have no connection with reality. The ability to think and function normally is affected and though paranoid schizophrenia is a milder form of the disorder it can have lifelong ramifications and can even result in suicidal behavior and other complications. Usually the onset of the illness is marked by a sense of grandiosity and this preponderance is seen in case of delusion and/or a sense of persecution. The onset of the disease can be quite sudden and the deterioration in the condition of the patient can be quite rapid. The recognition and identification of these symptoms can be quite difficult for people with no prior experience or exposure to this situation. More perceptive relatives and friends may be able to recognize a heightened state of nervous tension, irritability, anger, jealousy and argumentative behavior (Kennard 2008). However, the good news is that with proper diagnosis and treatment patients overcome the symptoms and lead a happy life. Treatment Modalities Specific to Schizophrenia The symptoms displayed by John Nash in the film are very distinct and classic. The hallucinations of his room-mate, Charles and later that of Mr. Parcher, the US government official, and finally of Marcee show that his illness was detected at a very advanced stage where the diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia needed to be treated symptomatically and with continued medication and therapy. The medications that Nash is put under are the antipsychotic drugs and insulin shock therapy. He was confined and had to be kept under constant supervision at the mental hospital. During particularly severe conditions he had to be bound and kept in solitary internment. The major part of Nashs treatment included Dr. Rosens recommendation of insulin shock therapy, which is a conventional method of treating mental illness and is now considered to be outdated and antipsychotic drugs. The insulin coma therapy and convulsive therapy have now been replaced by antipsychotic drugs that have greater efficacy and lesser adverse effects. Antipsychotic drugs are tranquilizing medicines that are used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. The first generation of anti-psychotic drugs included clozapine (Monson 2008) which acted on the receptor sites of neurotransmitter, dopamine. Clozapine is a prescription drug for advanced conditions of schizophrenia and is also sold in the market under the trademark of Clozaril and FazaClo. It is sold specifically under prescription as tablets. It reduces the heightened sensitivity by blocking dopamine and serotonin from being transmitted in the brain. Some adverse side effects of clozapine can be drowsiness, constipation, and weight gain. Sodium valproate is an anticonvulsant that is now commonly used in treating psychiatric disorders particularly in the treatment of psychosis and depression (Omranifard, Amel Amanat 2010). Some common side effects of prolonged use of these medicines are weight gain, diabetes, drowsiness, spasms and tremors (NIH 2010). Some other symptoms like tardive dyskinesia (NIH 2010) which causes twitching around the mouth region are also seen in some patients. If these symptoms are noticed in patients being treated with these medicines, the doctors intervention should be sought. Patients suffering from schizophrenia have to be on life-long treatment for this condition. In the movie, A Beautiful Mind, we also see the use of shock therapy in the form of insulin shock therapy. Nash had to undergo this kind of therapy five times a week for duration of ten weeks. In the conventional mode of treatment, it was thought that convulsions were a way to prevent occurrence of schizophrenia. Hence, this method of treatment was used on patients to induce convulsion and electroconvulsive was often used to protect the patient from personality disorders. In modern times, doctors use anesthesia and varieties of muscle-relaxants to this therapy more bearable. Intervention, Support Program and Therapy for Schizophrenia Apart from medical intervention, the patient needs to undergo behavioral therapies such as training in social skills in order to function normally in their daily lives. Support and awareness programs should be conducted for the patient as well as the family members. Support at a community level should also be given to the care-givers to cope with the situation and prevent relapses (Dawson 2010). Family members and support groups must encourage patients to follow through with their treatment and get check-ups done regularly. Basic skills that need to be reinforced with a person suffering from schizophrenia should include: Training for rehabilitation like being able to perform basic hygiene routine and being able to eat on ones own Being able to use public transport Train for a job: basic skills and communication Learn how to manage money When to take correct doses of medicines How to recognize signs of relapse and communicate with the therapist. Diagnostic Tests for Schizophrenia Current Prevalence The first step in the detection and prognosis of the clinical conditions experienced in schizophrenic and bipolar patients is through reliable diagnostic techniques such as CT scan of the brain, magnetic resonance and other imaging techniques which may help eliminate possible confusion in the diagnosis of this disease. As there are few or no medical tests available that will warn a person of an onset or prevention of this disorder, the psychiatrist must carry out a thorough evaluation of the patients family background and genetic history by interviewing the patient and the care givers. The doctor must also take into account the course the illness has taken and how long the symptoms have been prevalent, patients reaction to medication and therapy. The current prevalence of this condition at a global level stands between 0.5 and 1 percent (Bhugra 2010). However, prevalence of this disorder can be calculated only through registered cases of Schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. The risk of occurrence of this disease is higher than the actual prevalence recorder statistically. Prevalence in developed countries is higher than in developing countries, partially because more cases are registered and more commonly because of the nomadic and unstable lifestyles (Saha et al 2009). There is no appreciable difference in the male and female cases of occurrence, though the migrant populations have a higher propensity for this disorder. Impact of Psychosocial Issues like Discrimination John Nash had strange mannerisms and his odd behavior put some of his students and friends off (A Beautiful Mind 2001). His constant writing of formulae on window panes and wearing his knitted hat at all times seemed out of place and caused his friends to ridicule him. The incident of his being dared to speak to an unknown girl and her slapping him for his effort caused him to become the brunt of his friends jokes. There was an incident with his teacher who was worried about Nashs performance in Princeton but that was later transformed to appreciation because of the brilliance of his project. People suffering from schizophrenia are often labeled, stereotyped (Marder 2010) and discriminated against. The common perception is that the patient is responsible for having the behavioral changed that are a part of the symptoms of the disorder. Often negative stereotypes are created and the people suffering from schizophrenia are believed to have undesirable or uncontrollable characteristics. In the film, it has been demonstrated by the absent-minded behavior of John Nash when he allows his son to nearly drown in the bath-tub while he goes off to complete his secret work. His constant delusion of being engaged in highly classified and confidential state matters caused his wife and friends distress and at certain periods to mistrust his words, when in reality he was making up stories due to his hallucinations and delusions. These stereotypes often lead to discrimination against the sufferers of schizophrenia and they are considered as social outcasts. Discrimination often takes the form of patients being rejected in society and their job applications being rejected on the basis of their mental health reports. The same has been observed in the case of letting out apartments to people with a history of schizophrenia. They are not considered socially competent and find themselves subjected to derision and not being taken seriously. The quality of their work is often scrutinized more than the average worker and that causes them additional mental trauma. Certain ethical issues that may come up during the prognosis and treatment of this disorder may come in conflict with human rights issues. For example, patients who were treated with electroconvulsive therapy were never consulted and had to endure extreme pain and terror often without reaping the benefits of being completely cured. Another significant point to be remembered in this regard is that the person suffering from schizophrenia is often driven to desperate acts like self-mutilation because the people they trust do not believe them and sometimes reject them outright. This, to my mind, adds insult to injury because the need to be heard and understood is very high in people who are confused and trying to grapple with their own demons. Role of Nurse in Treatment of Schizophrenia The role of a nurse in the treatment of schizophrenia is important as they can be effective in intervening with people suffering from schizophrenia and their families. They are trained to use interventions that have been proven to be effective. They can be administer IV injections and monitor the condition of patients so that the chances of a relapse are minimized. They can help in educating the family members, improve the familys ability to cope with the stress of having to care for a mentally ill patient and improve their communication skills. The nurse is particularly trained to observe drug compliance and manage the situation professionally in times of crisis. Nurses can also monitor the physiological condition of the patient and make educated reports to the doctor in charge of the patients treatment. For the family, the diagnosis of schizophrenia in a loved one is experienced as a disruptive event that changes the family life and affects a family member permanently and scars him/her for life. This unhappy experience mars the patients relationships with his family members and friends who begin to perceive him as a stranger who is needy and requires constant attention. The presence of a trained nurse can mitigate this situation as it is easier to confide in, trust and unburden ones grief to a third party whose perception of the situation will be more objective. Also the nurses training in this specific field can be used as a better supervisor to monitor the day-to-day progress in a patients condition. Recommendations A family member or care-giver may be emotional about it and not be able to assess the situation objectively or even adhere to drug-compliance and post recovery counseling. Nurses can also help the client to recognize hallucinations and talk about the hallucinations dispassionately. Nurses are also in the unique position of being trusted by the patients whom they can reassure by telling them that there are other patients who have similar symptoms (Nursing Care Plan 2010). A patient is more likely to receive a nurses recommendations for treatment more seriously than family members and help the patients to recover more quickly. The movie is much acclaimed and very well made as it has not used a clichÃ ©d approach to schizophrenia as a mental disorder and ways in which people deal with this debilitating disease (Hausman 2010). In the movie, the ending is touching but it shows how people once afflicted with this disorder will have to live with it for their lives. However, I would think that with the newer techniques of treatment and advancement in pharmacology, these kinds of disorders will be able to reduce the trauma of the patient and their families. Realistic films such as A Beautiful Mind should advertise the newer modes of treatment that will reduce the suffering of the people and allow them to lead happy lives. I would recommend that this powerful medium be used to create awareness amongst common people so that the patients of schizophrenia are not discriminated against and their disorders can be stemmed at the initial stages.
Role And Importance Of Strategic Planning Introduction Strategic planning has been previously used for the tangible products rather than being used for services like the hospitability or the tourism industry which has just recently gone through a massive change.. Previously strategic management was not applied to the sector as it was only restricted to the product industry whereas now the new dynamics have changed the workings and now strategic management has become a part of this service industry as well and not only that but now it is alos used extensively in the service sector. Having said that , still the strategic management literature found regarding the hospitability and the tourism industry is very restricted as very less work has been done in this regard. The industry is still in its infancy so the limited relevant literature is an important issue. (Gilbert and Kapur,1990) It will be noticed that marketing plays a very evident role in the process of strategic management because all the material found on the subject matter is referring to marketing while defining the business strategic business planning. This essay will attempt to define strategy and strategic planning using a case study of Disneyland Florida in relation to tourism to make a critical assessment. This will be done by use of the internet, journals, books, and an attempt to speak to someone at county hall and the London Development Agency. The limitations for the study includes time constraints,, lack of literature that is accessible and constraint computer facilities. Strategic planning theory Strategic planning is considered as the vital function in the tourism and hospitability industry because it enables the firm to stay aware of the latest trends of the industry along with keeping the customers satisfied. This also gives a competitive advantage to the company over its competitors and helps it to work smoothly in the competitive and fast paced industy . It is a very powerful marketing tool; which is used to identify the customer, the customers needs and wants to provide for those needs and wants. Strategic planning is the process wherby abn organisation evvaluaates itself in order to determine its intended destination and formulates guidelines or ideas on how best to achieve it. O Connor has defined it as an incorporated process where th success is based on the longer success mangagement of an organization. (OConner,2000) Francis Buttle has defined it as a plan of action which is used to achieve the objectives. (Hotel and Food Service Marketing, 1993). Further to elaborate the process has been described as a methodology where a fit is maintained beteeen the organizations abilities , resources and the transforming oppportunites in the market. (Kotler, Bowen, Makens,2003) Buttle has differentiated between the tactics and the policies where the policy has been defined as lasting conditions which are imjposed upon deceision making while a strategy is refered to as rather a flexible thing where the practices are change according to the situations. Thus a strategy is an evolving process which keeps on changing . Hall has identified the procrss as very integral because it allows enough developments in the tourism while the unequal preparation and development activities with reference to tourism are connected to an entire wide tourism plan to provide an entire frame for tourism. The strategic plans are considered as a long term goal which identifies chief means due to which the achieving goals has specified the important resource allocation to turn up at the ways. It has been considered as flexible and constantly evolving phenomena. In 2005 Mc Gee has called at a transforming phenomenon which should be changed according to the ecxternal environment. Hospitality and tourism industry, countries, hotels and tour operations are always competing with each othere. Give the ficklenesss of consumers and the speed with which they are willing to move to other providers, it is imperative that organisations formulate strategies that would keep their target markets interested and attract new customers. Kotler in 2003 has defined the term as a process where a fit is made beteen the organization and the resource in the presence of th transforming marketing opportuniteies. Thus, when formulating a strategy, an organisationss employees are crucially important in the executing of these strategies. A successful outcome is wholly dependant on how consumers perceive tha organisation through the representation by its employees and that is the most important reason why the wworkforce is considered and an integral asset for a company. Importance of strategic planning It is requird to formulate current goal with a complete plan in the mind. The planning is important because it includes the feedback from all the stakeholders. Hereas when one fails to plamn the tourism trip them he may go through various sever problems or negative situations at the destinations, thus, the planning of tourism is considered as a very integral approach for the policy maker who are planning tourism development. (Hall,2008) By planning the tourism development the things in the process could be made relatively easy. The actors in the presence of a plan may respond in fewer spans of time which may be beneficial for the policy ,makers and the tourism development as well and along with it, it would also provide a route to the planning process. Destinations in general function in an extremely aggressive situation where customers have a broad variety to choose from and which are very often comparable within a district or country . The confront destinations have been forced to face is to the development of something which is an exclusive thing or a physical situation, or a culture, or perhaps a set of products that has the ability to not only satisfy one time visitors but repeated ones also. (ESCAP2010) 3. Tourism planning approaches 3.1. incremental growth approach: Incremental growth refers to making sure that transformation can be done as the development processes opens up. In tourism this would be interpreted as that if formerly a plan has been made and the recommendations are also done, then the development alternatives are chosen prudently and is then implemented steadily and observed frequently until the objectives would have been met (Getz 1986). Even when the objectives are met, the incremental approach suggests a constant evaluation and check to make sure that the development supports cultural integrity and ecological integrity. Generally the theory which is applied at its best to the planning that generally takes place at different destinations and various levels that are site -specific. ( Tomothy and Tosun 2003). The approach is significant because of its flexibility and the fact that it enables high levels of predictability. (Getz, 1986). The process which is incremental development enables flexibility and encourages efficiency as it gives space for adjustments and changes in the process of development in the cases where various situations exist which have not been seen previously and may hamper the development of tourism. The advent o the incremental development has been contributed by the dissatisfaction of the conventional control which usually has focussed on quick development and partial flexibility. Previously a lot of stress is made on preparing the plan as the final prodfuct of a planning effort. Thus the approach manages to maintain that the planning process is constantly changing and is a continuous process, which should be adaptable keeping in mind the way of meeting the objectives of development. (Inskeep,1991). In 1992 Timothy suggested at quite a few places that in todays world quite a few clear examples of incremental tourism can be found because this newly developed concept has not been tried and tested much. Thus there are various examples of this around the world as well where long term strategic planning is doen in the manner that scatters physical and various othere forms of development initiatives into different development periods which may vary from 5 or 10 or 20 years. In 1991 it was suggested by Inskeep that the todays modern tourism plans have adopeted the approach as a way which would enable it to check the progress and assure the viability of development programs. It is important to note that when looking and evaluating tourism, incremental plans make things slightly complicated. Since, there are so many variations in the trends, the tourism industry is affected them by them increasingly. Consequently, it is important to ensure that plans for development are made keeping these things int consideration. According to Timothy and Touson (2003) there needs to be an incremental plan hich may be introduced. This incremental plan is all about a careful preparation of toruism based plans and it looks at the future potentials of the touism industry and also allows for a certain deal of flexibility coming along. This way even the future goals and aims can be looked upon judged and evaluated. 3.2 community approach In relation to this perspective, Murphy (1985) argues and favours the community form of tourism as being more sustainable in contrast to traditional mass tourism. The one reason why this happens to be the case is because it allows for a greater ease and flexibility to the locals as compared to the traditional ways when strong leaders made most of the decisions regarding tourism. Also there must be a great deal of consideration to the local ecology before any means to allow an increasing amount of tourism are introduced. According to cooper and hall (2008) the community based tourism approach has emerged during the 1970s and particularly has thought about by tourism secondly the main factors. Firstly, there needs to be a consideration of the ethical and social along with the economic negative externalities brought about by tourism . Next ,, It should also be noticed that if a tourism decision has to be made successful and effective, there needs to be a greater involvement of the local community in the decision making process. Murphy (1985) points out htat the fact the local needs are looked upon to is an important phenomenon in tourism industry today. Take the instance of st Lucia and the street party nearby the fishing village of Anse La Raye. The place was particularly famous for the local fish fry project which involved the selling of the local sea food in the traditional way. The particular street was held out and its local touch manintained out against the increasing traffic and the great inflos of tourists from across the world (Competing with the Best). Despite the many advantages that this approach has with it should be remembered that implementing such an approach has two main problems. Firstly, the approach is very time consuming and expensive to be implemented. This is because no clear decision can be made as to who decides how tourism plans should be made and finally who has the final verdict. Also since, its means of developing tourism may not be of a direct benefit to the countrys economy, the government may also be reluctant to encourage it. In other words it may be said that he community approach to tourism focuses mainly on the development of the community rather than on the development of the individuals who make up the community. Thus the community in itself tends to be more important than the locals (hall 2008). The approach makes and gives a greater authority to the local stake holders than otherwise. 3.3 collaborative approach With respect to the community based approach , hall states that collaboration of people in this case tends to be highly important. There should be a constructive use of the many opinions and a joint decision should be reached Gray (1989) states that a stake holder looks upon to analyse if the current circumstances help to serve his interest or not and that if there would be any collaboration that could be reached upon the various stake holders before reaching a proper decision about what to do. When there is a joint deciosion which needs to be reached upon by everyone in general. It is important to note that the power does not rest within one individual but with all the people in total (wood and gray 1991). Thus , gray (1988) suggests that it is important for the stake holders to be responsible or eligible for the tasks that are to be carried put if the right type of a decision needs to be made. Also the stakeholders may not have an access to most resources which is also an important issue which may be needed to be taken into consideration. Coordination has become one of the pre requisite for the planning and policy making of tourism. The term refers to the relating issues and decisions which enable them to match with one another and operate in a consistent manner. Coordination for tourism takes place in 2 manners which is horizontally, an example of which would be between the gobernment agencies which would be answerable for different tourism- related actions at the similar level of governance which includes the national parks, tourism and transportation while vertically the example would be that among diverse levels of government (like local, regional and provincial with in an secretarial and procedure systems (hall, 1999). In order to attain complete tourism development, collaboration between planning sectors at all levels is very important. 4. practice of strategic A business can have the best ideas and plans, however if the human resoures is not able to understand and carry forward the instructions, thus it may take the organization towards the failure. Therefore it is necessary that an organisation conduct a SWOT analysis before formulating a strategic plan. Internal analysis of the organization which includes the strengths and weaknesses and the external environment for the opportunities and threats, the organisation would better understand how best to proceed with its strategic planning. The strategic process of planning includes the indemnification of an organizations , vision, and the environmental scanning and strategy formulation and strategy implementation. (www.quickmba.com). Carrying out a PEST analysis is also beneficial to the strategic planning process. It has been considered that the economic stability is very important for the financial safety. Sociyt and the culture of the operational area should be taken into consideration when planning and technological advancement would keep the organisation abreast and ahead of global developments. 5. Disneyland Paris in Europe (community approach) Disneyland Paris in Europe is practical example of community approach. Tokyos success made it clear to the management that the Europe Park would be a good idea. Dissatisfied with the Tokyo deal, the Europe Park was managed in a very different manner. Disney has now managed to negotiate a larger stake in the park, nearby hotels and restaurant amenities. This huge opportunity got with itself immense risks as well . in april 1992, Euro Disney welcomed the European visitors. Euro Disney is located 40 km from the central Paris and as planned it has managed to be the most lavish and the biggest theme park that had to be built till now. (bigger than Anaheim, Orlandos or Tokyos parks). It was also projected to be a sure-fire money maker for its parent Disney. Neverthelesss, to the managements surprise the natives failed to take goofy over Mickey . The company struggled to get the consumers or huge sales, in the early years it had to ace a decline of over 10% . By summer 1994 Euro Disney had lost some $900 million, and up to today., Disneyland Resort Paris is still not profitable. Disney Group thought that they get success in Tokyo with Disneyland Tokyo now they had better idea and plan for other cultures to adopt the American Disney concept. Because of this they charged highly than others. When the Disneyland Paris was opened, in a limited time it gave shock to the Disney group that the plans failed to achieve their expectation. Due to this Disneyland paris faced a great loss in beginning and the condition start worse. As a result, it was thought seriously by the management to shut down the park. In such a situation the Saudi al-wahid bin abdul-aziz al-saud provided the essential cash injection ($500 million) which became the life support for the management as it enabled the organization for the reorganization and the financial stability for temporary basis. This helped the park a lot and it managed to get back the foot fall of the consumers. The immense profit that the company has gained has encouraged it to expand with another Disney Studio and a retail and office compound in Paris. 5.1 Reason of Disneyland Paris Failure at the beginning The reason of disneland paris failure at the beginning, Disney failed to approach public and public involvement. Due to cultural difference. This was the main reason of Disney failure and they experienced huge loss. The concept of disneland paris is similar to Tokyo and united states. The concept of Euro Disney consider and known as American. The French people are very sensitive about their history, language and custom. They protect their culture and language against English. The environment of Disneyland Paris was totally based on American style and culture. Disneyland Paris planning analysis Analysis of the Disneyland planning shows that the concept of the Disneyland paris is very unique. The Disneyland brand is very famous in Europe. The Disneyland Groupe is well known in all over the world. The idea and plan of Disneyland is successful in California, orland and Tokyo. The location they chosen is good and target the all big markets such as united kingdom, germany, france, etc. The exudation of strategy is good. From theory strategic planning to reality the implementation of plan in action is well introduced. There is nothing wrong with structure and construction. Walt Disney company had built the bigger and most lavish theme park than other parks. The project is perfect but failed to work as Disney management whished. 6. result From above mentioned data it shows that the strategy planning not always goes right and gets success. Its important to achieve the task we should completely analyse all other aspects, because strategy planning is not sufficient for success. The other aspects that are related to strategy should be studying well weather it is related to loacation , finance, marketing, socially, economically, public approach and pubic involvement, advantages and disadvantages of strategy, profits and loss, a complete analysis of strategy is essential before exudation and implementation of strategic plan. Because the strategic out come depend on this . the result we get helps us to make a conclusion about how much the rate of success we achieve from this strategy. At the beginning Disneyland paris was not successful but after changing the strategy and again strat with new strategy process. In 1995 disneyland paris starts work well and European theme park become successful. The number of visitors is incre asing day by day to visit Disneyland Paris. 7. island of timor-leste (incremental approach) The island of Timor-Leste (Tourism development strategies for Timor Leste is a classic example to show how tourism development can be allowed by using the incremental approach. The place is located near Indonesia and has emerged as a new country for tourism development. The tourist attractions in this country are magnificent landscapes along with ancient cultures as well as an attractive and distinct history. However , the island lacks infrastructure facilities in addition to an adequate level o financial investments and funding. Moreover, there is a need for a popular legalisation and the documentation of the various historical sites. There also needs to be a careful ensuring of the fact that the cultural buildings and monuments are properly secured (tourism development strategies for Timor-Leste) According to the Timorese the incremental approach is the best policy to allow for a strong and sustainable tourism development because it considers community participation in addition to sustainability. The islanders believe that there are no hard and fast rules to provide a great deal of facilities to the tourists coming in. (tourism development strategies for timor-leste) the island tourists are against the hasty construction of buildings and thus aim to avoid them. However , they care for the sustainability of their environment which is and important step for the future because this timor lestor approach to develop tourism allows the maximum benefit of the local community. Recommendation Thus it can be assured that the Timor Lester approach allows for the maximum benefit of the local population and is therefore important for future developments as well since it focuses on step by step building of facilities and infrastructure which would be beneficial for everyone that is , the tourism industry, the tourists and also the economy of the country. Conclusion I have chosen examples of two different approaches of strategic planning related to tourism one is community approach and other is incremental growth approach. Disneyland Paris study analysis represents community based approach. Though the concept of Disney was good but initially they faced problems. In initially the Disneyland Paris strategic approach was not completely community based approach. Disney is copied same strategy of Tokyo and U.S. They failed to get people attraction. Disneyland management didnt recognize the cultural and custom difference between America and Europe. That was the main reason Disneyland Paris failure at the beginning and experienced a great loss. The condition become worse Disneyland Paris failed to work as owners want. But later they start with new strategy that was completely based on community approach. Disneyland Paris starts work well and they succeeded in getting public interest. In incremental growth approach when planning stage is begin and after the preparation of the plan the options are chosen very carefully. Exudates step by step and monitored continuously until the task have been achieved. I believe that there are enormous advantage to this approach because tourism is multifaceted industry. In tourism the choices of tourist change rapidly. Island of Timor-leste near Indonesia has a unique magnificent landscapes, ancient culture and textured history. Its new for tourism development. The Island lack many facilities such as water supply, accommodation, roads and electricity, it is also lack of finance . according to In Trimorese opinion incremental approach is the best because there are few programme for development those focuses on keeping natural environment. Incremental approach initiates a plan and use local support. Different locations have different criteria its not necessary that if one strategy is successful in elsewhere and when same strategy transfer in somewhere else it will get same response.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Deception in Hamlet Deceit, misleading information, and spying on others can lead to their demise, intentionally or accidentally. The misleading and deceitful instances in the play are indirectly responsible for HamletsÃ¢â¬â¢ death. Claudius misleads Hamlet when he shipped him off to England under the guise of a restful retreat and when he realizes that the new king has lied to not only him, but the people of Denmark about the death of the former king. HamletsÃ¢â¬â¢ deceit comes from his mother, believing that she has betrayed his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s love by not mourning for long enough after his death, and by marrying Claudius. Spying also causes problems for Hamlet down the line since it leads to the killing of Polonius, and the deaths of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Misleading instances in the play occur frequently.The moment when the Ghost tells Hamlet that his death was not accidental and that he was poisoned by Claudius is what starts the trail of lies and murder in the play, ( I;v;74-77 ) "Thus I was sleeping by a brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s handÃ¢â¬ ¦/Ã¢â¬ ¦/ cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, unhouseled, disappointed, unaveled." Until the night of the "Mouse trap", Hamlet still has some doubt in his mind about the Ghosts words. As soon as the king reacts negatively to the plot, Hamlet is one hundred percent sure that Clauduis was deceiving the whole country about Old HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s death; (III ;ii ;267) "O good Horatio, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll take the ghostÃ¢â¬â¢s words for a thousand pound. Didst perceive?" Hamlet witnesses the king storming out of the play, showing he was affected by the death of the player king, seeing as how the he died the same way as his brother. It is also apparent that Hamlet is out to mislead the general public by putting on a false face. His "antic disposition" allowes him to act without consequence. He is able to appear mad when it is convenient for him, and this allowes him not to raise any suspicion about his actions, ( I; v; 171-172 ) "As I perchase hereafter shall think meet to put on an antic disposition on." After the killing of Polonius, his antic disposition allows Hamlet not to be held responsible. This leads to him being sent away to England under the guise of a trip for rest. Claudius once again deceives Hamlet and his mother by having an alternate agenda.
Friday, July 19, 2019
John SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Grapes of Wrath is one of the most influential books in American History, and is considered to be his best work by many. It tells the story of one familyÃ¢â¬â¢s hardship during the Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Joads were a hard-working family with a strong sense of togetherness and morals; they farmed their land and went about their business without bothering anyone. When the big drought came it forced them to sell the land they had lived on since before anyone can remember. Their oldest son, Tom, has been in jail the past four years and returns to find his childhood home abandoned. He learns his family has moved in with his uncle John and decides to travel a short distance to see them. He arrives only to learn they are packing up their belongings and moving to California, someplace where there is a promise of work and food. This sets the Joad family off on a long and arduous journey with one goal: to survive. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In this novel Steinbeck set forth with the intention of raising awareness to the general public of the difficulties and injustices these migrants faced during this period in time. It exposed the methods of the California farmer to use the migrants in order to lower their costs and make their profit margin higher. How they starved and cheated the poor, working man, in order to keep him desperate for food and too weak to protest. Above all, it showed everyone that these Ã¢â¬Å"damn OkiesÃ¢â¬ were all simply men, women and children, no different from anyone else, just poorer. They were human beings with feelings and not the uncivilized beasts they were portrayed as at the time. Steinbeck portrays the Ã¢â¬Å"OkiesÃ¢â¬ in a way no one before him had, and also managed to keep their story true to life. He did this by mainly using dialect, and wrote the Ã¢â¬Å"OkieÃ¢â¬ dialect just as it was spoken, breaking the lines of proper grammar and spelling. If he was con cerned with such things it would have ruined the personality of the characters. His unique writing style to capture the atmosphere of these people and the era is evident in this excerpt from his book: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã &nbs... ...nbsp;Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Barror-6 any sort of symbolism to mask the meanings behind his words. He comes right out and states the events that have led up to this point and says there will be a revolt eventually, the question is simply when. They were hungry, and they were fierce. And they had hoped to find a home, and they found only hatred. OkiesÃ¢â¬âthe owners hated them because the owners knew they were soft and the Okies strong, that they were fed and the Okies hungry; and perhaps they had heard from their grandfathers how easy it is to steal land from a soft man if you are fierce and hungry and armed. The owners hated them. And in the towns, the storekeepers hated them because they had no money to spend. There is no shorter path to a storekeeperÃ¢â¬â¢s contempt, and all his admirations are exactly opposite. The town men, little bankers, hated the Okies because there was nothing to gain from them. They had nothing. And the laboring people hated the Okies because a hungry man must work, if he has to work, the wage payer automatically gives him less for his work; and then no one can get more. (318)
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Life Is a learning process for everyone. Nothing stays till the end of our breath except knowledge. From Aristotle quotes, All men by nature desire knowledge because there will always be something new to learn every day. During my childhood time, I think that I could be anything I fantasize when the teacher asked about my ambition. But now, that question becomes the topic that I feared the most and I would take some time to make up my mind and came up with a safer answer which sounded applicable. The fact was I did not have the answer.Growing up as an ordinary student, I did not make a specific goal in my life. I just a student that has fallen in love with science since in primary school when I had made my own telescope. It's Just too amazing like Albert Einstein quotes, The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all art and science. Starting from there, I keep my path in science field and had a thought to be a scientist. However, I realized th at certain things would not easily come In our way and we might not get everything we want in life.After completing my secondary school tit Is]IL Planners Malaysia (CPM) qualification as student science and got an average result made me accept whatever offer came. That is me. My name is Unregulated Syllable Bin Mood Doris. I am 22 years old and recently graduated in Bachelor In Science (Hon.) In Textile Technology at university Technology MAR. I am one of student at Faculty of Applied Science. Randomly, I think my faith is still with science. My admission begun in 2011 and finished in 2014 means that the total years of my study were three years only.It's Just like a fast as lightning. I also got a Dean's list once during my degree study. As time passed, life experienced gained and achievements become a significant measurement of life accomplishment. I never feel burdened with this course and can overcome every hassle efficiently. In fact, by having this principle In me, I decided to give a taste Into my life by further my study for Master level. In my opinion, there are no extraordinary people who do the great things. It's only ordinary people who are doing ordinary things in an extraordinary way.Things we dream of will not come true without any effort and courage. From my little three years of textile exposure, I try to learn and adapt myself with new things and for sure I found It Interesting. I am a person that not easily give up and keep on creating excitement in life, even though it's turn wrong. Life must go on. I will create a new cross road to success because there is no dead road for people that have a high self motivator. Furthermore, for me performing fail is an opportunity for me to perform towards the success. Took the challenge to meet other opportunities in front of me. Therefore, I am having plan to hold a M aster In Business Administration (MBA). With some important cognition and managerial skills, especially in business. I am aware with my in sufficiency since business will be an integral part of my Job, it is essential that I fill in these gaps. Moreover, during my degree study, there was certainly subject related to business field such as marketing, retailing and merchandising.Surprisingly, I managed to obtain a great grade in those subjects. Now, I can move ahead to become a one-level-higher than the average person. Given the confluence of my personal and professional interests, I also wider my goal to attend courses related to computer in order to deepen my expertise and broaden my perspectives. Last but not least, therefore, to hold MBA scroll is one of my ambitions that could come one of the factors that could boost my motivation to keep going on achieving my goals.With this state of achievement I can broaden my abilities and improved my interpersonal skills, which are crucial to any work environment. For me, personal satisfaction plays a key role in career decision by enjoying the sense of productivity and usefuln ess I gain from the work, and I feel it is a valuable experience for my future employment soon. This is because I am a person that realize I do not know nothing but interested in acquiring new information, which help me to obtain something.
bath Donnes A valedictory Forbidding Mourning is an amazing screw verse form with beautiful figurative wording, a far-offewell to Donnes married woman onwards their long partition. The writer assures his admired the part get out do nary(prenominal) wrong and praises on their terminateless extol. With his competent theme style using extended fictions, paritys along with con nonation and denotation done with(predicate)out the rime, Donne expresses his effect in the military unit of their angelic h acey to stool through the tangible separation.In 1611, John Donne had to leave for a atomic number 63 trip, leaving behind his pregnant wife (Brackett). He wrote this meter as a farewell pledging his wife on their reunion and suggesting her not to be sorrowful. The writer uses several(prenominal) methods of figure of speech, among which are the donatives of vocabulary of the poetry. The discussion valediction in the title is the deport of bidding farewell, mournin g is grieving or crying for a loss, laity in line 8 refers to putting green, ordinary batch, sublunar (line 13) refers to cosmos below the moon and ele handsted (16) is macrocosm the comp unmatchednt of something. These denotations play an important billet in the poem to mask the content of the word, forcing its au go acrossnce to pay close maintenance to either detail. Besides these words, extended metaphor link ups numerous physical bodyries and comparisons in the poem creating the most noted go to bed poem of Donnes works.Donne begins the poem with the virtuous workforce (1) image. He compares the separation among sports fans to minds leave-taking their bodies, life coming to death. These virtuous men (1) are immortal in the living(a)s memory, even though their dispositions may have left their physical c all overs. As the memory remains, they leave behind presenttofore be there with their beloved ones. Therefore they die without awe, facing death with peac e and courage. Donne uses this comparison to announce to his wife, that the love they share is far too great, too profound to be affected by mere physical separation. He also says in his sermons Death, is the divorcement of body and soul Resurrection is the Re-union. . . . (Freccero). They have no cultism of separation like those mightily men have no fear for death. The union of body and soul afterwards death leave alone serve as a symbol of reunion of the lovers later on in the poem.In the southward stanza, the poet asks his wife to unthaw, and make no hoo-hah/ Notear-floods, nor sight-tempests move (5-6). The word melt symbolizes the unity of two people scram one, not two separated individuals. The poet tells his in effect(p) wife to shed no tears, for that action at law is only for the laity (8). This parting forbids mourning, as the couple has much(prenominal) dedicated centre Donne praised his love to be above of those common people. If they publicly display their grief, he feels it would befoul the love he shares with his wife by being no better than the love of ordinary people. Donne pleads with his dame to accept his departure. and then the writer moves from the laity people to a larger view of the whole earth (Brackett). But the trepidation of the spheres,/ though great far, is righteous (11-12).Trepidation of the spheres is meant to talk around(predicate) the pathetic of the Earth and separate planets. In Donnes time people alleviate believe the Earth is the concentre of the universe, and some other planets move around it (Brackett). Although men applaud about the nature of these movements of the universe, and blame harms and fear (9) on those planets, the truth is the nature is innocent (12). Men with their weakness suffer from their possess mis constitutes, not from influence of the stars or such(prenominal) depends. As Donne and his love have reached the train of angelic love, which has a symbol of a absolute circl e, they are of no crime for all misfortune and mistakes the normal people have (Freccero). This metaphor refers to the main image of the poem, the compass. This symbol in later extension also has a stable persist in the center, with another(prenominal) part moving around it creating a perfect circle. The sodding(a) spinning of the Earth is like the lovers romance,In the fourth stanza, Donne ranks the dull cislunar lovers (13) as the ones who cannot truthfully under bide the insight of love like his and his wifes since he place his romance to the train of the universe, these under the moon relationship whose soul is sense (14) cannot bear absence of their partner.They scarce have a physical bond, among them lacks the ghostlike connection that keeps the relationship unwavering through time and space. He sees this type of love as weak in essence, because it is not based correctly on the attach of two souls, nevertheless more on the bonding of two bodies. It cannot endure such an absence as Donne must take from his spouse, as it would . . . remove/ those things which elemented it (16). They do not have the bond even when being apart and as a final result would not be able to stand the trials of distance. They would be torn apart by absence because they areno longer together to cement the feelings that they once possessed. Donne and his wife have the type of romance that is so much refined (17), they cannot even pick up it.Their relationship is not only about missing the eyes, the lovers lip or the warmth of their hands. Their feeling here is the loss of a part of themselves. Though the feeling is hard to bear, believing in the others return helps them get through the separation. In the next stanza Donne creates another spectacular metaphor. Our two souls, therefore, which are one (21) declares them as two living bodies that sharing one heart and one soul. The separation will only be a reach, but expansion (23), compared to specious to airy thinness beat (24). opulent can be expanded and condensed over and over again, but it will never break. The strength of gold is also the strength of the love between the couple. Like gold, it cannot be severed or torn by expansion.The most important symbol, the key link of the chain of metaphors appears in the seventh stanzaIf they be two, they are two soAs stiff geminate compasses are twoThy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show, To move, but doth, if th other do (25-28).Like the compass is made of a center and a rotating foot that makes no show to move, but doth, if th other do (27-28), the lovers stay connected through the soul though their bodies are apart. Although the center and the foot are stretched out, they are cool off joined at the beginning. However as the center foot stays still, when the other moves away it still leans and hearkens (31). The unrelated numeric device suddenly becomes a outstanding metaphor describing the couples situation. The lady staying at home as the ce nter, hold and missing her man, longing after every step her husband takes, with part of her soul watching over him. Meanwhile the man, as the moving foot drawing out, still has a part of him lingering hind end at home with his love. No matter how far the geographic distance between them, they are as one with their love bond.Together they make a perfect circle, the angelic love model as an Aristotelian circle (Tate). Notably a circle with a load in the center also is the seventeenth atomic number 6 symbol for gold (Divine), as mentioned earlier it stands for the ability to stretch out but not to break of the soul. Seeing no loss in the parting, the couplepictures their joyous reunion thy firmness makes my circle just, and makes me end where I began (35-36). Like a circle, the lovers will end up together. They have to implement separation, but after the separation comes uniting. formerly a circle is formed, the beginning point and the ending point become one.The poem is full o f original ideas and associations it is complex, and highly intellectual. John Donne incredibly creates unique figurative language in his work, making A valedictory oration Forbidding Mourning his most famous love poem. Along with using the naughty imagery and metaphors skillfully he dedicates the poem to his beloved wife with a beautiful message the deserving soul will return to the awaiting body, as the traveler will return to his darling (Freccero).Works CitedBrackett, VirginiaA valedictory Forbidding Mourning. Facts On File Companion toBritish Poetry, 17th and eighteenth Centuries. New York Facts On File, Inc., 2008. bloomings literary Reference Online. Facts On File, Inc. http//www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE54&SID=1&iPin=CBP1029&SingleRecord= authoritative (accessed June 17, 2009).Divine, Jay Dean. Compass and Circle in Donnes A farewell ForbiddenMourning, cover on Language and Literature 9, no. 1 (Winter 1973) pp. 78-80. Quoted as The Symbolic grandeur of the Compass in Harold bloom, ed. John Donne, bills study Poets. Philadelphia Chelsea House Publishing, 1998. (Updated 2007.) roses Literary Reference Online. Facts On File, Inc. http//www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE54&SID=1&iPin=BMPJD30&SingleRecord=True (accessed June 17, 2009).Donne, John. A Valediction Forbidding Mourning. 1611. Rpt. in coerce LiteratureReading Reacting Writing. By Kirszner and Mandell. 6th ed. 2007.Freccero, John. Donnes Valediction Forbidding Mourning from English LiteraryHistory 30, no. 3 (March 1963) pp. 336-38. Quoted as The Circle of Love in Harold Bloom, ed. John Donne, Blooms Major Poets. PhiladelphiaChelsea House Publishing, 1998. (Updated 2007.) Blooms Literary Reference Online. Facts On File, Inc. http//www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE54&SID=1&iPin=BMPJD32&SingleRecord=True (accessed June 17, 2009).Tate, Allen. Essays of Four Decades (Chicago Swallow Press, 1968) pp. 247-49.Quoted as front man in the Valediction in Harold Bloom, ed. John Donne, Blooms Major Poets. Philadelphia Chelsea House Publishing, 1998. (Updated 2007.) Blooms Literary Reference Online. Facts On File, Inc. http//www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE54&SID=1&iPin=BMPJD33&SingleRecord=True (accessed June 17, 2009).