Saturday, August 31, 2019
The answer to this most controversial book and movie series is a no. Harry Potter books were all about the fight between evil and good. It did a lot of wonders and spectacular creativity on ways of entertaining a childÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination by magic tricks and spells. Just like when we hire magicians and entertainers on kiddies birthday parties. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology after all is about yesterdayÃ¢â¬â¢s magic like Merlin and science fiction semi horror stories of the Underworld. The fight for censorship deals with everything about the concept of witchcraft, violence, satanism and deception. Matrix prove to be violent also and deceptive of the real world. True to its word, the only perceived danger is fantasy. Kids are kids and they fantasize often. Observe how they conduct their games and play at home. One can see that they are all pure fantasies. Can we not give them the freedom to exercise what is appropriate to their age without banning books because of the claim of distorting fantasy from reality? Even mere comic books of super heroes and Xmen were created out of fantasy. Shall we ban them then because of scientific fantasy of Xmen mutation? (Bloom 1999). Parents of course have every right to participate in any group and in any legal way to promote the welfare and education of their kids. And yes, they can definitely take a fight to banning books in relation to this protection concept. Both schools and parents shall have a face-to-face discussion with the topic on hand. No one shall dictate the other. It shall all be based on reason and the practicality of the subject being fought upon. Taking on a kidÃ¢â¬â¢s story too seriously could be hazardous to society. Witches, wizards, sorcery, and spells have long been in the category of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. The use of magic potions and spells has long been engaged in the story of Alice in the Wonderland and Snow White. The only difference is that Harry Potter movies seem to be the rage at present costing us more to buying books and DVDÃ¢â¬â¢s for our kids. The creativity is just exemplary. The sounds and the way they do their magic are just fantastic. It is never a sin to admire creativity nor is it a sin to express appreciation. There was never a quantitative study of the effects of Harry PotterÃ¢â¬â¢s movies and books on children. There was never a quantitative measure of negative implications on behavior by those who admire the cultural phenomenon chronology of manipulation of evil and its consequence. Talking about voices and banning, then parents do promote the culture of criticizing exploring fantasies and curbing creativity in movie productions and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s skills to emulate their feelings to good stories. After all, shaping of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is seen to stem from his family context and environment. That means more on dealing with people attitudes and witnessing to assessing what parents teach and not from entertainment and media except for the very delicate condition of being mentally impaired. Parental guidance is the primordial concern of culture development and values teaching. Kids do know they are just plain movies not to be taken seriously. References Bloom, J. (1999, October 22). Is Harry Potter evil? New York Times. p. Op-Ed.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Rhetorical Devices Essay In Florence KelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech about child labor she emphasizes the need to obliterate these harsh working conditions for children. She uses pathos, rhetorical questions, and repetition to move the audience to act against child labor. With using these techniques throughout her speech she develops a well appealing argument for the audience to connect with. Florence Kelly incorporates pathos into her speech to enhance her argument. She wants the audience to feel for these children when she says, Ã¢â¬Å"while we sleep little white girls will be working tonightÃ¢â¬ (Kelly). The feeling she creates of guilt makes the audience draw in, feeling like they should help. As she uses Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ she includes herself and creates the awareness that as we go through our daily life there are children who are working in the late hours of the night, who are supposed to be getting more sleep than her herself. This feeling of unsettledness that people do not realize to those children, sleep is a privilege and it is taken for granted every day. In addition to, Kelly ends her speech using pathos to give one last plead for people to help, Ã¢â¬Å"For the sake of the children, for the Republic in which these children will vote after we are deadÃ¢â¬ (Kelly). She makes the audience feel like they have extreme importance for the children then and in the future, that they have to act now before itÃ¢â¬â¢s too late, as she uses the word Ã¢â¬ËdeadÃ¢â¬â¢. Kelly uses rhetorical questions to engage the audience in her argument towards abolishing child labor. In her question she points out the importance of women with the child labor laws as she states, Ã¢â¬Å"Would the New Jersey Legislature have passed that shameful repeal bill enabling girls of fourteen years to work all night, if the mothers in New Jersey were enfranchised.Ã¢â¬ (Kelly). She points out how much of a difference it makes that these mothers do not have a say in this. With their say it would make a crucial impact on these laws, to get their own daughters out of these unethical working hours. Kelly adds this rhetorical device for her argument because it strengthens it by telling the audience that these mothers do not have a say to change these laws but they do have this chance and opportunity to make a difference. Furthermore, in KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s concluding paragraph sheÃ imbeds another rhetorical device making the audience rethink everything and the guilt feeling when she says, Ã¢â¬Å"What can we do to free our consciencesÃ¢â¬ (Kelly). We see again her not saying Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢ but referring to Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ making the audience feel connected with her that she is with them in making this difference. Making the audience feel united intensifies her argument by creating an emotional appeal and that is creates throughout the rhetorical questions. Repetition is very important in this speech; it helps create many different appeals to audience. Kelly repeats the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëwhile we sleepÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"while we sleep little white girlsÃ¢â¬ ¦And they will do so tonight, while we sleepÃ¢â¬ (Kelly) this repetition makes the audience think twice about what else is going on out there that we do not know about while we live our daily lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s. She also tries to get the point across with this repetition that as we do nothing we could be helping a greater cause. Another repetition word that she uses is the word Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"We do not wish this. We prefer to have out work done by men and women. But we are almost powerlessÃ¢â¬ (Kelly) This repetition creates a stronger argument by unifying the audience and connecting herself with them. The unification is a symbol to the audience that she is working on this problem too and they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be alone in creating a solution but she needs their help so they can cr eate that Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ in this complication of child labor. The rhetoric devices pathos, rhetorical questions, and repetition enhance the meaning in KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s argument to make the audience want to pay attention to this horrific problem. She needs these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s help and willingness to execute these children at work and creates a developed argument to do so. Pleading for help is what she knew she had to do and she did that with great emotion getting the audiences awareness on this problem.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Different cultures and beliefs can have an effect on implementing anti-discriminatory practice. One example of this preventing anti-discriminatory practice is though in a culture saying Ã¢â¬ËpleaseÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthank youÃ¢â¬â¢ to things, where in another culture this may not be normal and so if someone doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t say thank you or please to something this may be seen as rude, and could make the person treat the other person differently. Another way culture and beliefs can affect implementing anti-discriminatory practice is that people may understand a personÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, or not understanding why someone behaves in that way and then the professionals own views or stereotypes will take control over the way the person treats the individual and then this wont promote anti-discriminatory practice. This may differ depending on where the health care setting is for example if it is in more of a multi-cultural area, beliefs and views may be different. Not understanding the importance If care providers donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the importance of promoting anti-discriminatory practice, they are more likely to not work in an anti discriminatory practice. Care providers should be aware of the active promotion of anti discriminatory practice in order for the service users of health and social care to get the best of the services. If care providers fail to work in an anti discriminatory practice, service users will be not treated fairly and their choices wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be respected or taken into account, so therefore it is very important for health and social care professionals to work in an anti discriminatory practice. If the care settings fail to promote an anti discriminatory practice, service users will be marginalised and disempowered and this can lead to stress and depression and can trigger challenging behaviour. The way in which anti-discriminatory ractice is promoted may be different in different health and social care setting such as a school will focus more on children where as an residential care home may focus more on elderly or disability. Following the Ã¢â¬ËnormÃ¢â¬â¢ Both care providers and service users are used to doing what is the Ã¢â¬ËnormÃ¢â¬â¢ for them. This can cause problems when promoting anti-discriminatory practice because if for example a care provider is used to carrying out certain behaviour then they may ignore new anti-discriminatory practice that has been introduced because it is something they are not used to doing. This can cause loads of problems because it means service users may be neglected and discriminated against because new practice is not being followed. This could also sometimes be down to the age of the care provider. If someone has been working in a care setting for a long time they may be used to caring in a certain way which means that they will not adapt appropriately to new practice where as someone who is new will be fully aware of the new procedures in place so may be more likely to follow them.
Knowledge Management - Essay Example The involvement of the company employees in the process was effective especially in top and middle level management who understood the whole process successfully. With the effective communication within the top and middle level managers, it was possible with the plan to be implemented at these levels. The sales volume increased as proof of the effective nature of the Knowledge management. The volume of sales increased by 2% annually because of the implementation of the new process. Increase in sales volume is a result of change in management style. However, the focus of the group has been on the top and middle level management levels, which was considered beneficial and vital. However it creates other problems that must be addressed for the total improvement of the whole process. The inability to reduce staff turnover indicates the challenges in the implementation of the change process. The implementation of the change made is complex for some of the employees. The reduction of the staff turnover can be achieved by simplifying the knowledge process with the main focus of the process being the simplicity of usage. Access of information about the current products is considerably by the enactment of the new technology. The restricted access led to the development of problems in information sharing between the sales agent and the customers leading to failure in communication and creation of awareness. The application of technology did not factor in the low level employees making the implementation process complex in areas involving lower level employees. The most affected in the process is the sales agents because of the nature of their work. Customers require faster information sharing especially in issues of product specifications. The online platform does not allow the sales agent to access information fast thus
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder - Research Paper Example The treatment through medicines is considered to be a one-way therapy, whereas there are certain medications that have showed a positive influence on the patient. Now, the question is why there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a successful medication for the treatment of PTSD. PTSD is classified as a type of anxiety disorder, which is said to be manageable after taking anti-depressants and which is merely a way to manage symptoms. But yet, no proper drug therapy is found. The medications used in PTSD patients include Benzodiazepines, SSRIs, and atypical Anti-depressants. These drugs are mainly used to manage the symptoms, the symptoms include: Sleep disturbances, Emotional disturbances, Hyper-arousal, Numbness, Panic attacks. These drugs are given in combination to avoid the recurrences, and to improve sleeping patterns of the patient. These signs and symptoms are not persistent. It is normal to have signs and symptoms after a traumatic event. Researchers have proved that the patients with lesser intellectual abilities are more likely to suffer from it and are usually victims of severe cases of PTSD. Most survivors or sufferers are not always the victims. It is said that the time is the most effective medicine in the treatment (Bonnano, 2004). In the case of distinct minorities, the substance abuse, depression, anxiety emerges. (Kessler, Peterson, Lucia, 1999). Most epidemiological studies suggest that the traumas like wars, killings, kidnappings are actually happening in the developed countries. With increasing disaster rates, the patients are increasing drastically and are more difficult to manage. As the medical science is going through a vast development, a number of assessment tests have come into existence, which plays a crucial part in the diagnosis at the right time and then management therapy. Psychotherapy is slow and is also not a successful therapy, but if it goes along with the medication, the success rate is higher. Psychotherapy
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Of Interest - Residential Child Care Licensing Investigator - Personal Statement Example The job opportunity is also in my personal characteristics of providing an opportunity that is relevant to my professional requirements My degree in criminology has prepared me adequately for the understanding of applicable laws related to the career needs. My studies have also prepared me analytically to handle complex situations and analyze people critically in establishing their physical and psychological conditions. While developing my investigative skills, I learned appropriate measures to assume where the need arises for the protection of the welfare of others and, in this case, the children. I have extensive communication skills in Spanish and English with a great interpersonal skill to build healthy working relationships. My personal life is defined and separate from my professional path and engaging in complex and time-consuming activities in varied geographic regions would not be a problem. I like challenging and exceeding my limits and those of my employers in the quality of service delivered. I will use my skills to the best of my ability by working diligently to provide efficient services as required by my roles and obligations. Personally, I hope to increase my presence and activities as an RCCL Investigator while advancing my career in the same. Professionally, I hope to learn from the services of fellow investigators so as to improve my skills in handling cases more efficiently while contributing significantly to the other members of the agency. As an agency, the scope of our responsibilities will be crucial to DFPS where we get to serve a larger segment of the people in need of our
Monday, August 26, 2019
Informal interview(HRD) - Essay Example He has to set the daily roster, look for new and novel things for the employees, interact with them and facilitate in solving their day to day issues, look after their needs and wants, discuss options to safeguard their organizational rights and basically take the message of the employees towards the higher management realms. The rationale for choosing this person was that Mr. Jack is a renowned person within his field and all employees have something good to say about him. It shows that Mr. Jack has a very commendable relationship with the employees as well as the people with whom he is connected on a personal as well as a professional level. He likes to maintain his links with the people even though they are not working with the same organization any more. I believe that choosing Mr. Jack for this interview is also based on how well he has been able to bring confidence within his personality and how much people can learn from him and his actions. He is a thorough professional who b elieves in success and brings out the very best through his actions and behaviors on a daily basis. I asked Mr. Jack how he got along with people from different backgrounds and how he would cope with someone who was not easy to come by. I even asked him how he would react to changing policies of the organization which he believed would ransack the basis of association that existed between the organization and its employees. I inquired from Mr. Jack how he would go with the recent upsurge in downsizing by most organizations and what he would do to make sure that there was complete job security within his organization. I discerned the basis of his attachment with the recent trends and developments within the Human Resources field and what he shall do to make sure that everything remained in line with the policies of the land where the company existed. Lastly I requested Mr. Jack to let me know how he would foster positive ties with the people who have left the organization and hold so me form of resentment and disgruntled feelings (Saunders 2004). I learned quite a few things from what Mr. Jack had to tell me. He was forthright and candid about his approach towards doing things his way, which was in accordance with the rules and policies of the organization. He told me there was a great amount of growth within his field and anyone can take up the Human Resources arena to extract the best mileage out of his education. He even told me that a career switch towards the Human Resources field would bring in higher stakes in terms of money, an excellent profession and above all linkages with the people who hailed from different backgrounds and ethnicities. It even allowed an individual to learn new things and get acquainted with discussions which he had never put his eye upon. Mr. Jack was very comprehensive as far as the answering of his questions were concerned and I saw that his eye contact did not break even for a single second Ã¢â¬â which suggested for his hones ty which he was delivering through his verbal and nonverbal communication regimes. In the end, I would suggest that interviewing Mr. Jack was indeed something which can be regarded as a positive point for me. It helped me understand what a wonderful personality Mr. Jack is. It also assisted me in comprehending how he takes the different avenues of life in his
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Information Managment - Case Study Example However, these retailing powerhouses have weaker market presence in areas where Pamida is located thus creating a competitive, first entrant and first mover advantage for the company. (Porter, 1985) ShopKo has implemented a systems application called Markdown Optimizer in order to deal with pricing of a product according to season, store location, local tastes and past demand. The software analyzes historical pricing plus sales data in order to control and price product leftovers of individual stores. Pamida overhauled its inventory management systems in order to address product shortage from its different stores. It has implemented a full service distribution system in three warehouse locations. Initially, the company experienced setbacks and low earnings caused by the implementation of the new distribution system. This was due to a inappropriate allocation of resources where Pamida focused on new technology infrastructures and new merchandising software without modernizing their back-door operations. The warehouse management system was old, inflexible and outdated. The functionalities and features of the software were not anymore aligned to the new business strategy and it cannot cope up with the growth of the company's demand. The company normalized its distribution operations when it has utilized and employed a better and flexible distribution system software. Results and Business Benefits The ShopKo operations have benefited a lot from the new application. The Markdown Optimizer increased the gross margin and decreased its payroll costs from the previous year. Importantly, it has dramatically decreased the percentage of unsold goods at the end of each season. With these benefits, the net profit of ShopKo has increased. On the other hand, Pamida performed well by maintaining a high in-stock availability of merchandise through effective warehousing, efficient distribution and modernized information systems. At the end of 2001, Pamida has turned around its operational setbacks and implemented a functional full service distribution system.. They had become successful such that the company has decided to consolidate its distribution at two centers instead of three to further save on costs. Key Learnings Information systems strategies should be aligned with the business strategy of a company. It must not focus on modernization of infrastructures alone. It is important for IS to give value to the company and compliment the business goals. As part of strategic management, information system's role in the decision making process has become very important in the organization. It functions both as support and driver of corporate strategies.(Pearlson, 2001) An effective information system needs a valuable and useful symbiosis with the rest of the management structures in an organization.(Turban et al, 1999) Case 2: What Happened to Kmart Background Kmart was the largest discount chain in the retail industry. It was established in 1962 and has expanded to 63 stores at the end of 1963 through their introduction of discount stores.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Past Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction - Research Paper Example Terrorism is a multi-causal phenomenon (Sommer, 2010) and involves a combination of varied factors including psychological, social, cultural, political, economic, as well as religious. Hence explaining the action in a concise and restricted definition would be highly erroneous and disillusioning. For the purpose of this study the term WMD would be defined to include any act of terrorism by an individual or an organization carried out on a large scale using chemical, biological or other weapons intended to cause irreparable damage to the property and lives of human beings; and disrupt the economic and social structure of the targeted region. Researchers have suggested various factors as key causes behind such acts of aggression, in a bid to understand the psyche of the terrorists. These factors range from local ethnic clashes to public outrage and dissent against international forces mainly arising due to differences in religious and cultural ideologies (Cordesman, 1989; DiGiovanni, 1999). Most of the researchers are of the opinion that most of such acts are carried out by individuals or groups belonging to terrorist organizations with a view to achieving their organizational missions (Gambetta, 2006). The use of WMD by terrorists has been in existence for several decades now and continues to remain as a potential threat to the United States as well as rest of the world. This paper aims to assess and analyze the use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorists by way of various case studies.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Manfucturing quality sys - Case Study Example The changes in the departments will bring about a positive impact and this will help the company in succeeding in the airline industry. By changing the supply routines and the supplier, material management will become easier. Enterprise Resource Planning is one among the best ways to integrate the departments in the company. This will help in decision making and further improvement of the company. Toon Air has been operating the airlines for many years. They have been successful in this field with no specific competitors. The recent development in the airline industry has led to a situation where many other airlines operate at a lower cost. This has affected the development and growth of Toon air. This has proved to be a great disadvantage. To overcome this situation Toon Air has to adopt new strategies and plan accordingly so that the current situation can be improved. This will enable the employees and the customers to have a problem free environment. The spare parts are procured regularly form some of the manufacturers. Any purchased material has to be stored in a warehouse and it has to be maintained properly, failing which may leads to unforeseen circumstances. These spares have been stored at a warehouse which is located at a distance of 30 miles from the airport. Purchasing is the major event in the management of supply of spares. The main problem is the delay in the supply of parts. Whenever a part is required they must be readily available to the users and engineers. There should not be any time delay as this in turn affects the flight timings. This will result in an unexpected loss to the company since the aircrafts are kept at the airport. They manage the situation temporarily by flying the substitute planes. This is not a permanent solution. This may prove to be a problem when several planes are idle at the airport. The spares are supplied to the maintenance engineers as and when needed. As the people in the purchase de partment do not have proper authority to decide and procure spares, this delays the process of purchase and supply of spares to the engineers. Toon Air purchases the spares from a reliable supplier. The cost of the spares is costly when compared to the other suppliers. They must select a different supplier who can supply the parts at a much lesser rate. This will be of more help to the company as this amount can be used for some other purpose. If the supplier is changed they can procure the spares immediately. (Hitomi, 1996).They must select the supplier who can deliver the spares immediately after the order is placed. This will reduce the delay in the supply of the parts. This in turn will reduce the idle time of the aircrafts. Since the spares are delivered immediately, the substitute planes can be used for any emergency situation alone. There has been a practice of engineers getting the spares directly from the suppliers. They make an order to the supplier and they get the spares delivered as and when they require. This may be of help only in certain cases. To avoid such a situation, the company must change to a different supplier so that the spares are procured whenever needed. The company must appoint some responsible person who can handle the purchase department in an efficient way. This will ensure that the department does not
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Scientific Management by Federick Taylor Essay Federick W. Taylor, considered the father of scientific management published his work, The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911 has been instrumental in revolutionising management thought. He promoted the process of scientifically studying work to increase worker and organisational efficiency. His principles contributed to a variety of management practices involving specialisation, assembly production, division of work, work incentives and management control. The development of machine-tools reach a point marking thr beginning of today large scale production line in factory more tan hundred years ago. The commencement of mass factory production was fundamentally influenced by Federick Talyor. His scientific management concept shaped for good all the features of industry and Talyor is the inaugurator and father of, as well as chief worker in, the movement to impart excellence to management by viewing it as an art base on scientific principles. universal in scope, his work long since has penetrated to every country and that in these establishment ther saw some degree of influnce by his scientific principles. In our global economy, efficient businesses will be rewarded with profit as Federick Taylor advocated in his concept of Scientific Management. In a global economy, there is simply no places for inefficiency to hide wrote Hamel in The Utimate Business Library and You have to believe that Federick Winslow Taylor would have loved Wal-Mart,Sony or Federal Express modern icon of efficiency More than 100 years has passed yet his principles in scientific management is still relevant in many sectors of business today. One example is the fast food restaurant, likened to little factory, with a manager who overseas and control the workers, sales, inventory and supply, everything to keep the shop running efficiently as Talyors wishes. Much of Taylors ideas were adapted in the operation of the assembly line and many of Ford Motor companys operations in the assembling of motor vehicles in early 1910. This was when Ford Motor mass produced cars. However the application of Taylors concept into management practices was met with resistant opposition from workers and their unions, as workers had to work very much faster in Taylors Scientific Management style. Union leader resented Taylors ways and claimed workers were mistreated in his focus towards efficiency. Yet others will find Taylors ideas applaudable up to today. Schachter(2007) found Taylors style still practice in many governrment agencies where proposal of public sector efficiency was similiar with Taylors approach.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Campaign Strategy Essay 1) What are the goals of the campaign? 2) What questions need to be answered to reach those goals? This is a list of general campaign questions to help start your research process. These are not research questions. Each general campaign question should generate a list of more specific research questions. For example, What is the issue/problem? could lead to the question, What is the history of lead poisoning in our community? General questions to ask about a campaign: 1. What is the issue/problem? (Understand their arguments. ) 2. What are the solutions or alternatives? (Develop our arguments.) 3. Who else is trying to change the problem, how effective are they, and what are their solutions? (Potential allies. Locate a niche. Avoid obstacles and duplication of effort.) 4. Who can implement those solutions? Who has the power? (The Targets) 5. What kind of campaign would it take to convince them? (Feasibility test.) A. How long would victory take? What are the time constraints? B. What are tactics and paths to a victory? C. What are the opportunities or obstacles? D. What has worked for other organizations on similar campaigns? 6. Who are the other players? A. Who would support change? (Allies) B. Who opposes change? (Opposition) C. Who could become allies/opposition, but are currently neutral? 7. Does our base have the power and resources to win this campaign? 8. Will this campaign build our movement, base, or organization? WHAT IS A CAMPAIGN STRATEGY? A campaign can be seen as an organised, purposeful effort to create change, and it should be guided by thoughtful planning. Before taking action, successful campaigners learn as much as possible about: * the existing situation * who is affected by the campaign issue both positively and negatively * what changes could improve the situation * what resources, tactics and tools are available to implement a campaign that will address the issue. Campaigners use this knowledge to create their strategy, which guides them in planning, implementing, marketing, monitoring, improving and evaluating their campaign. A campaign strategy should answer the Ã¢â¬ ¨following questions: Problem, Vision, Change 1. What problem are you confronting? 2. What is your vision of how the world will be, once the problem is resolved? 3. What change/s would bring about this vision? Stakeholders, Relationships,Targets 4. Who is affected, positively or negatively, by the problem? 5. How are these people or groups related to the problem and to each other? 6. Who are you trying to reach? 7. If your campaign is successful, who will be affected? Answering key questions repeatedly, at each stage of your campaign, about the problem, solution, stakeholders and targets as well as the tactics, message and tools you will use, will help develop your campaign strategy. Your campaign strategy will guide what you do and it should be updated regularly as the campaign is implemented and the situation changes. CREATE A COMMON VISION Its useful to involve your whole campaigning group in exploring the problem, your vision and the changes sought: a shared understanding of the problem will stimulate ideas about possible actions to take, and will also help your group to stay motivated and focussed during the campaign. Creating a common vision will also help determine ways to monitor, and adjust the implementation of, the campaign if necessary. Activity 1: PROBLEM SOLUTION CHANGE 1. Discuss and decide, as a group, what core problem your campaign seeks to address. Elaborate all the adverse effects of this problem. 2. Each person in the group should create their own answer to the following question: What would a world without this problem be like? * Use words, diagrams, illustrations. * Imagine unlimited resources (money, power, etc). * Discuss and enumerate all the benefits of this proposed world. 3. Combine your individual visions of the future to create a single common vision for the campaign. Discuss in depth which broad actions or changes would resolve the problem you identified, so as to arrive at the world you have envisioned. These necessary actions are the main focus of your campaign. Discuss the scope of your campaign: decide whether it has multiple components (sub-campaigns). If it does, you may choose either to narrow the focus of your campaign or create a multiple-campaign strategy. UNDERSTAND THE CAMPAIGNS STAKEHOLDERS Stakeholders are people, groups, organisations, or institutions that are connected to your issue. They may support your campaign, be adversely affected by the issue in question, have the power to change the situation, or even be responsible for the problem you have identified. An important task when designing your campaign is to learn as much about the stakeholders as possible. You should: * Understand each stakeholders relationship to the problem and your proposed solution * Define the relationships between different stakeholders * Determine the ability and willingness of stakeholders to help or hurt your campaign * Identify which of these stakeholders your campaign should concentrate on to create the change your desire. Activity 2: MAPPING STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS Start creating a map in which entities with a stake in your issue are represented as circles, or nodes, and lines between these circles represent relationships. It is good to use sticky papers (post-it notes) for this activity because they can be moved about as required. 1. Discuss the interaction that is at the root of the problem your campaign wants to address. Who creates the problem? Who is affected by it? How and why are these entities connected to one another? 2. Continue, taking notes as you go along, until you can identify the interaction between entities (nodes) that most represents what you seek to change. 3. Identify all of the nodes between which this kind of interaction is happening. 4. Place these nodes at the center of your map. 5. Identify the relationships of these central nodes with others nodes on your map. Start locally and move outward regionally, nationally, internationally and globally, if relevant. Depending on your problem, expand your map with two or more levels of nodes (marking these in a clear way): * First level: entities with direct contact to the central nodes (family / local) * Second level: entities with contact to the first level (regional / national) * Third level: nodes with general influence on the issue (international / institutional) 6. Next, draw lines representing relationships between these nodes and identify the kind of relationship they have; for example: * Power * Mutual benefit * Conflict * Potential After mapping out as many stakeholders as you can, you will have a graphic representation of your stakeholders relationships with your issue. Next you should analyse how your stakeholders may help achieve the change/s you seek. For more information on how to do this, see New Tactics in Human Rights Tactical Mapping. Activity 3: FROM STAKEHOLDERS TO TARGETS Begin defining specific objective/s of your campaign. Consider each stakeholders level of support and level of influence in the context of your campaign objective/s. 1. In simple, active terms, define what would resolve your problem and bring about the change you seek. Your objectives should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound. 2. Using the list of the stakeholders from the previous activity, identify as many as possible who could help achieve your objective. 3. Draw a horizontal and a vertical axis on a large sheet of blank paper (shown here). Place the stakeholders as follows: * The vertical axis represents their level of influence in achieving the goal of your objective from most influential (top) to least influential (bottom). * The horizontal axis represents whether they are likely to oppose (left) or support (right) your campaign. 4. After you place all the stakeholders on the paper, identify the most influential entities or individuals as potential primary targets, those who can make the change you seek. Note their level of support or opposition for this change. 5. Discuss the relationship of these entities to other stakeholders. You may already have this information on your stakeholder map from Activity 2. 6. Identify stakeholders who support your campaign and have influence on or relationships with your primary target group. They are your secondary targets, or participant groups, who could become actively involved in helping your campaign achieve its goals. Locate them on your graph and identify two or three participant groups to concentrate on. (Adapted from The Change Agencys Power Mapping exercise.) Activity 4: FROM TARGETS TO TACTICS Now you have identified the target audiences that your campaign needs to communicate with, and what relationships they have with other entities with a stake in the problem, you can consider what tactics will best address your target and participant groups? 1. Draw a half-circle, divided into wedges. Place those who most support your campaign on the left side of the spectrum; those who oppose you the most on the right. 2. Use your maps and sticky papers, placing each target and stakeholder in a wedge according to their level of support for your cause. The result is a spectrum of stakeholders, a few of whom you have identified as primary or secondary targets. A five-wedge diagram would include the following: a. Active allies: supportive and motivated to achieve your goals b. Allies: may benefit from your success c. Neutral parties: may not be involved or affected currently d. Opponents: may suffer from your success e. Active opponents: actively interfere with your activities 3. Use this diagram to help decide which tactics to consider, depending on each stakeholders location on the spectrum. For example: f. Supportive: use mobilisation tactics g. Neutral: use educational. visualisation tactics h. Opposing: use disruption, interference tactics (Adapted from New Tactics in Human Rights Spectrum of Allies exercise.) This card was created by Namita Singh and Ali Gharavi in collaboration with Tactical Tech. There are four essential elements to every successful capital campaign: the Case; Leadership; Prospects; and, the Plan. This article is last in a series addressing each element and will focus on designing a successful capital campaign plan. You cannot do everything at once, but you can do one thing at a time. Begin by designing a comprehensive campaign strategy that works well you and your organization. Every successful campaign begins with a plan. The campaign plan is a detailed set of procedural guidelines for campaign leaders and volunteers. The successful campaign plan is built with two overriding principles in mind: (1) Anything other than a complete success is entirely unacceptable; and (2) To ensure the complete success of this fundraising effort, the campaign must be formally declared (and treated) as the primary institutional priority of the organization throughout the fundraising timetable. Recognizing and stating these basic truths puts you into the mindset to make the dec isions and commitments necessary for a successful campaign. From there, we begin to incorporate essential fundraising elements into a comprehensive strategy. Just as there are the four essential elements of a successful campaign (Case, Leadership, Prospects and Plan) there are many vital techniques at work within a good fundraising plan, among them the use of: personal visits, a phased approach, specific gift requests, lead and major gift solicitation, pledge type gifts. Personal visits always yield more money. People give to peopleÃ¢â¬âpeople they love, people they admire, people they respect and even people they fear. Often it is the personal relationship of the volunteer making the request that has the most sway with the potential donor. Our classic technique demands that we employ a phase-by-phase approach to our fundraising, always asking for the largest gifts first, and then medium sized gifts and finally smaller gifts. This ensures that we create enthusiasm and build momentum. Our success, as evidenced by our rapidly rising fundrais ing totals and our large average gift, will pull undecided people toward us and encourage them to give. Victory has a thousand fathers, yet defeat is always an orphan. One of the most important concepts we must use is to ask for a specific gift. We should be asking mostly with a view of our need in mind, but with some view of their means in mind as well. As we articulate the request, we want to make it clear that the reason we are asking them for this specific amount is because we need it if we are to succeed. It is important that they not get the sense that we are asking them for this amount just because we think they have it, or because we think that is what they Ã¢â¬Å"ought to give,Ã¢â¬ but only because Ã¢â¬Å"we have this enormous need and a limited number of people of means to whom we can turn.Ã¢â¬ If people are going to help you achieve ambitious plans, they need to know what is required of them. You must always ask for the specific gift. Every campaign that is successful in reaching its potential is going to do a good job of soliciting Leadership and Major Gifts. Clearly some families are especially able to help because of their material blessings. Within the fundraising industry, it is a well-known fact that approximately 80% of the money (or more) will come from just 20% of the people (and sometimes fewer). These Leadership and Major Gifts set the pace for others to follow and they provide the financial foundation upon which to build a successful campaign. Much time is spent, early in the campaign, trying to determine who should be challenged to consider a gift of this significant nature. A well-run campaign will always stress equal effort, equal stretching or even equal sacrifice from every prospective donor, but not equal giving. Each prospect should be encouraged to do their individual best. Another element of a successful campaign plan is to offer people the opportunity to make pledges, rather than one-time gifts, and to offer longer pledge redemption periods where appropriate and possible. Depending upon the length of the pledge redemption period, pledges are usually twoÃ¢â¬âthree times larger than one-time contributions. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s busy world, people often budget their money very carefully. If a family were going to give you $100 per month, you would rather have that run for 60 months (5 years) than 36 months (3 years), would you not? Narrowing the pledge collection period is not going to get this family (which is giving out of current income) to pay the money any sooner. It will merely get you a smaller pledge. There are many other important aspects of a solid fundraising plan, including: Financial Goals and Objectives Clearly stated goals tied to both the leaders responsible for attaining them and the timeline over which they are to be accomplished. A Detailed Campaign Timetable Giving form to function, the timetable gives us an orderly way to approach a complex task, ensuring the most important things are going to be done first. Organizational Chart Clarifying the responsibilities of each campaign leader and showing everyone how they are related to one another. Description of Leadership Roles and Responsibilities Written instructions delineating the job responsibilities of each leader/volunteer. Campaign Phases and/or Divisions and Tracks of Activity Another form of timeline, breaking out major phases of activity and tracks of action. Many phases may go on simultaneously, while others will be the only activity underway at that given time. Lead and Major Gift Programs This most important track of activity begins during the early quiet phase of the campaign and continues until the potential for such gifts has been exhausted. Commemorative Gift Plan A comprehensive plan to commemorate the gifts of your campaign donors, especially major and leadership donors which might include naming opportunities, public recognition and memorabilia that you can give to outstanding leaders/donors (such as a scale model of a building, etc.). Keep in mind that the plan may evolve as the campaign moves forward. Often this is a function of actual early results, and who is giving at what levels. Who is accepting a leadership role? Preparing a detailed timetable and organizational chart is a good way of measuring the progress of the campaign in relation to the plan and detecting when necessary adjustments or revisions may be needed. It also provides a specific measure of accountability. Establish goals for each constituency and phase. Everyone needs to know what is expected of him or her! A statistical summary of the number and level of gifts required to reach the campaign goal for each phase of activity should be kept regularly. This list should be constantly monitored against progress to date and should be consulted daily to develop a precise order of solicitation, thus providing us a plan and timetable for asking. In summary, the campaign plan is one of the four essential elements of a successful capital campaign and must be carefully researched and crafted. Remember to keep a close eye on the fundraising plan and modify it in view of your actual experiences. The plan is your road map to success. Remember, it is static while the world is very dynamic. Use the plan as your basic guide, maintaining your liberty to deviate from it briefly where called upon, and you will find it serves you quite nicely and leads to your fundraising success.
Assertion of Indianness in Amish TripathiÃ¢â¬â¢s Trilogy In the present times, with expanding globalisation, the world is getting closer. Prospects for Indian writings in English, in this scenario, have also expanded. English is gaining popularity and the same has become a language of upper and middle class Indians. Indian writings in English are not only popular among these classes of Indians but are also being read across the world. Contemporary Indian writers who write in English try their best to show themselves as much rooted as possible in Indian Culture and assert their Indianness. In this paper, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll analyse Amish TripathiÃ¢â¬â¢s Shiva trilogy to explore his assertion of Indianness. Amish Tripathi is known for his mythological fiction writing in the era when other writers mostly highlight contemporary family values, moral values, customs, culture and many other aspects to emphasize Indianness in their writing, Amish Tripathi has chosen mythology to assert the Indianness. In this study, we will also look at TripathiÃ¢â¬â¢s views regarding Indianness and see how far has he succeeded in asserting Indianness in his trilogy. Before we move ahead it is necessary to understand the concept of Indianness. India is a land of co-existing multiple cultures and traditions. U.S. Rukhaiyar and Amar Nath Prasad in Studies in Indian Poetry in English state that Ã¢â¬Å"Indianness is a particular, individualistic Ã¢â¬Ëlife-attitudeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëmode of perceptionÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ (149). They further quote Prof. V.K. Gokak who describes Indianness as Ã¢â¬Å"a composite awareness in the matter of race, milieu, language and religionÃ¢â¬ (149). Thus, Indianness can be considered as the summation of diverse cultures of India and ideology and ideals which composes India. Amish TripathiÃ¢â¬â¢s first book of the trilogy, The Immortals of Meluha was published in 2010 followed by The Secret of the Nagas in 2011 and The Oath of Vayuputras in 2013. Tripathi appears to be a devotee of Shiva (S. Pandit). Although, during his youth he was an atheist but he returned to faith, when started writing these books (S. Babbar). He became religious to the extent to regard religion as a trope to define Indianness. Tripathi defines Indianness in Verve as follows: The Indianness of India lies in our religiosity. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t restrict it to any particular religion, since we have practically every religion in the world existing within India. It is our attitude towards religion. Simply put, our deep religiosity defines the Indianness of India. Now, if his turning religious is only for getting a wider readership in India where majority of people are religious or if he truly felt it, is something we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. But, certainly his trilogy occurs as a persuading text for our not-much-caring-about-religion youth to attract them to become religious. His first book begins at Ã¢â¬ËMansarovar LakeÃ¢â¬â¢ in Tibet in 1900 BC where Shiva is the chief of a tribe called Ã¢â¬ËGunasÃ¢â¬â¢. The story begins when Shiva along with his tribe decides to move to Ã¢â¬ËMeluhaÃ¢â¬â¢, an organised (read more cultured and prosperous) kingdom with facilities and comfort, to avoid attacks from a neighbouring tribe called Ã¢â¬ËPakratisÃ¢â¬â¢. Shiva meets the immortal Meluhans that follow the path set out by Ram and call themselves Ã¢â¬ËSuryavanshisÃ¢â¬â¢. Soon on an occasion, Shiva drinks Ã¢â¬ËSomrasÃ¢â¬â¢ that gives Shiva a blue throat. There was a prophecy that Suryavanshis believed in. According to which the blue throated one, the Ã¢â¬ËNeelkanthaÃ¢â¬â¢ will gain them victory over their rivals, Ã¢â¬ËChandravanshisÃ¢â¬â¢ who have hired evil assassins, the Ã¢â¬ËNagasÃ¢â¬â¢ to attack and conquer Meluha. Shiva, there, also meets a beautiful girl named Sati and marries her. Sati is kidnapped by a Naga in front of Shiva. As a result, Shiva soon learns that Ã¢â¬ËChandravanshisÃ¢â¬â¢ are not the real evil and marches to the land of Nagas in search of evil in The Secret of the Nagas. That land of Nagas is shown as occupied by deformed beings. During his quest he meets Kali, sister of his wife Sati and Ganesh, the first son of Sati. In The Oath of Vayuputras Shiva gets to know about the ill effects of Somras. It has caused reduction in the water level of Saraswati River and the waste formed during the manufacture of Somras was put in the Tsangpo River, which has caused plague in a place called Branga. Also, the birth deformities of Nagas were caused by it. After learning that Meluha is the heart of producing Somras, Shiv attacks Meluha. He acquires Ã¢â¬ËPashupatiastraÃ¢â¬â¢ from Vayuputras, a tribe led by previous Mahadev, Rudra that avowed to support Neelkantha, and destroys Devagiri, the capital of Meluha. Amish Tripathi makes use of the ancient Indian mythology of Shiva, but blends it with fiction. According to A Glossary of Literary Terms by M. H. Abrams and Geoffrey Galt Harpham, mythology Ã¢â¬Å"is a system of hereditary stories of ancient origin which were once believed to be true by a particular cultural group, and which served to explain why the world is as it is and things happen as they do, to provide a rationale for social customs and observances, and to establish the rules by which people conduct their lives.Ã¢â¬ Mythology may be considered to be history by a few people, but one could argue that it is fiction and therefore there is no single version of mythology. It is generally twisted and turned according to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s belief. Indian Mythology, in the same way, provides a way of life for Indians. Tripathi refers to the mythology of Shiva that can be found in the epic called Shivpuran. Encyclopaedia Britannica provides glimpses of ShivaÃ¢â¬â¢s stature in Hindu or Indian culture as: Shiva, (Sanskrit: Ã¢â¬Å"Auspicious OneÃ¢â¬ )Ã¢â¬ ¦one of the main deities of Hinduism, whom Shaivas worship as the supreme god (Shaivism). Among his common epithets are Shambhu (Ã¢â¬Å"BenignÃ¢â¬ ), Shankara (Ã¢â¬Å"BeneficentÃ¢â¬ ), Mahesha (Ã¢â¬Å"Great LordÃ¢â¬ ), and Mahadeva (Ã¢â¬Å"Great GodÃ¢â¬ )Ã¢â¬ ¦Shiva is represented in a variety of forms: in a pacific mood with his consort Parvati and son Skanda, as the cosmic dancer (Nataraja), as a naked ascetic, as a mendicant beggar, as a yogi, and as the androgynous union of Shiva and his consort in one body, half-male and half-female (Ardhanarishvara). As Bhairava, he is often depicted as a Dalit (formerly called an untouchable) and accompanied by a dog. He is both the great ascetic and the master of fertility, and he is the master of both poison and medicine, through his ambivalent power over snakes. As Lord of Beasts (Pashupati), he is the benevolent herdsmanÃ¢â¬âor, at times, the merciless slaughterer of the Ã¢â ¬Å"beastsÃ¢â¬ that are the human souls in his care. Tripathi takes up traditional Indian mythology, which is regarded as factual history by some especially religious ones and as fiction by others, and creates his own fiction. The story that Tripathi weaves is such that it includes major characters and events related to Shiva in the ancient Indian mythology but modifies the traditional narrative. The actions, the narrative, signs and codes of traditional mythology are changed to the extent that they Ã¢â¬Å"are reduced to names, vague references and symbols, while the poetic abilities of the author are hampered by religious sentimentsÃ¢â¬ (Eric M. Gurevitch). Shiva although embodies the same power and same status but the manner in which events associated with him takes place are altered. Ganesh, traditionally believed to be ShivaÃ¢â¬â¢s own son is shown here as a child bore by Sati, ShivaÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, prior to their marriage. So what we can see is that Tripathi plays with traditional mythology that we know about. Also, Tripathi has shown his characters not as Gods but as humans. Shiva, Sati, Kali, Ganesh, Kartik, they are all there in human believable form unlike their projection in Vedas and Puranas where they had supernatural powers. Shiva is the chief of a Tibetan tribe and others also have human forms. However, these humans that Tripathi depicts are too perfect for being a human. For example, Shiva is always morally correct. His relationship with Sati is never shown as a relationship of passion that a human being might have. Therefore, we can say that the values that a traditional Shiva possess are not violated by Tripathi. He is a God-like person. Thus, we see a fine balance of TripathiÃ¢â¬â¢s own imagination and traditional ancient Indian mythology. Since Mythology, on its own, has no rigid boundaries and could be moulded or transformed up to any stretch of imagination of writer himself, these novels provide an alternate mythology for the Indian reader. However, for a non- Indian reader who is not well acquainted with traditional mythology of India, this trilogy can serve as the only mythology of India. Tripathi in his novels has also tried to amalgamate ancient Indian mythology with recent history and contemporary reality. The relationship between Meluha, the land of SuryavanshiÃ¢â¬â¢s and Swadeep, the kingdom of ChandravanshiÃ¢â¬â¢s reminds the readers of the relationship between India and Pakistan. Chandravanshis constantly attacked Suryavanshis which is reminiscent of terrorist attacks by Pakistan (Eric .M. Gurevitch). Also, Pakistanis uphold the symbol of moon which again links it to the Chandravanshis, where Ã¢â¬ËChandraÃ¢â¬â¢ means moon. Although, Tripathi by showing that Chandravanshis are not the real evil is highlighting that Pakistanis may be misunderstood by Indians. One can also say that the tensions between Meluhans and Nagas replicates the tension between India and China or Indian government and the Northeastern Tribes of India. Ã¢â¬ËNagaÃ¢â¬â¢ is an actual tribe in northeast India. The Nagas in the story are neglected, feared and looked at as enemy because of their abnormality. Kali and Ganesha were abandoned by Meluhans because they had an extra pair of hands and an animal head. Kali and Ganesh attacks Meluhans to assert their independence and to mark their identity. It resembles the strife that we constantly see between north-east Indians and rest of Indians because of their Mongoloid looks that are uncommon outside north-east India. Tripathi also brings in International tensions in his fiction. The picture of Meluhans producing toxic Somras that causes deformities in Nagas reminds us of World War II, where USA dropped Atom Bombs upon Japan that causes various deformities in Japanese of radiation affected areas till date. Another aspect that makes his mythological fiction in tune with contemporary world is the introduction of scientific dimension. When Shiva reaches Meluha for the first time he sees that Meluhans use modern equipment like showers etc. They also excel in medicine. And apart from this, they are advanced enough to produce Somras which is told to be a chemical compound, which if taken in undiluted form can be poisonous. Also, the two Asrtras, Ã¢â¬ËBrahmastraÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËPashupatiastraÃ¢â¬â¢ mentioned in the books can be seen as a product of modern science. The Pashupatiastra is a missile (possibly nuclear fission missile) of Pashupati (another name of Lord Shiva in traditional Hindu Mythology), used to destroy specific targeted area, while the Brahmastra is a missile (possibly nuclear fusion missile) of Brahma which does not have a controlled effect. (Sreedharan 778) It is clear that Tripathi indulges in all the above aspects as he is aspiring for larger readership. New generations that are inclined towards science and the older ones that still holds on to mythology, both are attracted towards this amalgam that Tripathi has created. With this, he is reviving interest of young generation, which is overshadowed by scientific reasoning, in mythology by justifying mythology through science and warfare technology. This combination of science and mythology that Tripathi uses, makes his novels and the ideas that he infuses in them as more acceptable to the reader. Despite above, one cannot ignore his conspicuous argument that he is trying to show in his Trilogy about Indianness that weÃ¢â¬â¢ll see later in this paper. Furthermore, Tripathi also showcases Indian values, traditions and customs efficiently. Throughout the series, we see that there is commitment in each and every relationship portrayed. The relationship between Shiva and Sati is a strong bond which is not broken even when Shiva gets to know about Ganesha. Sati and Shiva both are equally respectful to each other. Similarly, Shiva is a true friend. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t let his position as a chief come between him and Bhadra. He always wonders Ã¢â¬Å"Why does he keeps forgetting that he has been my closest friend since childhood? My becoming the chief hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really changed anything.Ã¢â¬ (The Immortals of Meluha 13) Apart from this Indian salutation of Ã¢â¬ËNamasteÃ¢â¬â¢ is constantly used in the books along with the gesture of bowing down and touching somebodyÃ¢â¬â¢s feet out of respect. Though Tripathi claims to assert Indianness through his trilogy, one needs to understand his notion of Indianness and his literary practice, which could be disappointing for some readers. Even though he expressed his version of Indianness in Verve referred above where he seems to believe that Indianness is defined by religiosity and all the religions evoke the idea of Indianness, but while writing this Trilogy, he completely ignored all other religions but Hinduism. This fact emphasizes that to become more Indian, Hinduism is the only way. Hinduism might be a way of life for majority of Indians, but Indian culture cannot be defined in terms of Hinduism only. Indian culture is a diverse cultural and is formed by different communities having different faiths. Also, what about those citizens of India that are non- religious. Are they not true Indians? By giving himself to a single faith, despite his claim of multiplicity of religious faith, Tripathi seems to be propagating Hinduism. Exc ept this, he takes all the right steps as he blends in all the other elements to make his trilogy acceptable for most readers spreading across all the age groups and nations. Thus, though it seems that Tripathi has been able to assert his version of Indianness by resorting to mythology, where he relates it to contemporary reality and also by showing traditions and customs practiced in India. But he definitely could not provide true idea of Indianness which embodies the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëunity in diversityÃ¢â¬â¢. He appears to believe that if one wants to be more Indian, then one should embrace his or her religiosity. According to this statement, he clearly seems to neglect the group of non- believers in India. However, even if we ignore the fact that he has neglected the group of non-believers in his ideology of Indianness, he by not involving other religious beliefs, has not been able to implement his ideology successfully in his works till date. Despite this approach, Tripathi has succeeded in garnering commercial success but he also apparently has succeeded in propagating Hinduism. Moreover, it is important to see that while writing this Trilogy, he has considered Hindu mythology as Indian mythology, which could possibly be because Hinduism is originated from India, while other religions like Christianity and Islam did not. Religions like Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism have their roots in some way or the other in Hinduism. However, his considering Hindu mythology as Indian mythology led to ignoring all the other mythologies of India, even that of native tribal communities of India. He has neglected the diversity of Indian culture. And that is why it is difficult to say that Tripathi has been able to assert Indianness successfully and justly. We can still hope that he might include all those categories of so far neglected people in his upcoming works and will be able to present a more justified, true and acceptable picture of Indianness because TripathiÃ¢â¬â¢s novels have a huge readership including young generation across the world. His representation of Indianness in a truer manner will help these readers to get a better and near to truth picture of India. Works Cited Abrams, M.H., Geoffrey Galt Harpham. A Glossary of Literary Terms. 10th ed. Delhi: Cengage Learning India Pvt Ltd, 2012. Print. Babbar, Sonakshi. Ã¢â¬Å"Writing changed me from an atheist to a Shiva bhakt: Amish TripathiÃ¢â¬ . Hindustan Times 10 September 2011. Print. Gurevitch, Eric .M. Ã¢â¬Å"Implausible Deniability Ã¢â¬â Reading Amish TripathiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËShivaÃ¢â¬â¢ Trilogy: Eric GurevitchÃ¢â¬ . Kafila. 28 April 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. Pandit, Shruti. My books are ShivaÃ¢â¬â¢s blessings. The Times of India 12 June 2012. Print. Rukhaiyar, U.S., and Amar Nath Prasad. Studies in Indian Poetry in English. New Delhi: Sarup Sons, 2002. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"ShivaÃ¢â¬ . Encyclopaedia Britannica. n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2014. Sreedharan, M.S. Bharatiya Vigyan Manjusha. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 2005. Print. Tripathi, Amish. The Immortals of Meluha. Chennai: Westland Ltd, 2010. Print. . The Secret of the Nagas. Chennai: Westland Ltd, 2011. Print. . The Oath of Vayuputras. Chennai: Westland Ltd, 2013. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"The Indianness of IndiaÃ¢â¬ . Verve Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Language of Terrorism Ã On September 11, 2001, two airplanes flew into the World Trade Center and another into the Pentagon, while yet another suspiciously crashed.Ã Blasted on T.V. screens across America, were images of fire, destruction, chaos and death.Ã Framed in colors of red, white and blue, were such headlines that read:Ã Ã ³America Under-Attack,Ã ² Ã ³The War Against TerrorÃ ² and Ã ³The Attack on AmericaÃ ²; all the while, urgent ticket taped messages flowed across our television screens and news anchors reported on the utmost of news.Ã To sum-up the days events, President Bush addressed the nation.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It was in the PresidentÃ ¹s initial speech to the nation following the attack on the World Trade Center that the adjective Ã ³evilÃ ² was first introduced.Ã Quoting from the bible, and making reference to a Ã ³power greater than any of us,Ã ² the President reassured the American people of their safety and well-being.Ã Within a couple of minutes, the stage was set for all that was to follow.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Since adopted by the media, the Bush administration and the American people, the religious reference of Ã ³evilÃ ² by the President has become an integral part of the public discourse.Ã Framing the way we talk and think about the dayÃ ¹s events, and all subsequent events, including talk of Bin Laden, the Taliban and terrorism, the use of binary language in religious and metaphoric expression have become an important element in the Ã ³war against terrorism.Ã ²Ã And despite theÃ PresidentÃ ¹s and congressÃ ¹ denouncement of any reference to Ã ³the attack on terrorismÃ ² as a holy war, it seems as if the American ideal of Ã ³separation of state and religion,Ã ²Ã has become suspended and/or forgotten all together. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The intent of this paper is to analysis the language used by the President to describe the September 11th events, and consequentially, its binary effects.Ã Given the PresidentÃ ¹s religious and metaphoric references a dichotomous framework is thought to exit.Ã For instance, in using the term Ã ³evil,Ã ² images of the devil and hell have been conjured up --and conversely-- images of God and heaven.Ã Helping to demonize those responsible, the initial language used by the President and later incorporated by the press, has since served as a political weapon from which to fight Ã ³the war against terrorism.Ã ²Ã Ã In that the PresidentÃ ¹s speech evoked from his audience (most notably the American people) feelings of fear, terror, anger, and hatred, the appeal has been to the publicÃ ¹s emotions and senses rather than their ration and intellect.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Free Essays - The Imperfect Oedipus of Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex) :: Oedipus the King Oedipus Rex
The Imperfect Oedipus of Oedipus The King When the play Oedipus The King is mentioned, what do you think of? I think of a very ignorant man that tries to escape his fate-- a man that had so much confidence in himself that he would put false accusations on people and defy his gods just because he thinks he is right. During the play, Oedipus realizes his own flaws while he investigates who the "true killer" of Laius is. The first character flaw that comes out in the play Oedipus is Oedipus' bad temper and irritability. When Oedipus first heard his prophecy from the Delphi oracle, he made an exodus out of Corinth as soon as he could. While on his journey to Thebes, a caravan cut him off. Enraged, Oedipus killed all the men except one. Only later did Oedipus know that one of the men he killed was his father Laius. If Oedipus had thought out his actions first, then maybe the first part of his fate wouldn't have been fulfilled. Other character flaws coming out during the investigation was that he is impulsive and he falsely accuses people. When Oedipus was talking to Teirasias, Teirasias proposed that he was the killer of Laius. But again Oedipus' quick temper occurs and he accuses Tieresius of helping Creon overtake his throne. Another example of Oedipus being impulsive was when he demanded information from the messenger from Corinth. When the messenger told Oedipus that King Polybus was not his real father Oedipus was intrigued and wanted to know the truth. On the other hand, Iocasta wanted him to stop his search because she already knew the horrible truth. Oedipus impetuously wanted to know the truth; and Iocasta, horrified, rushed away and killed herself. The last character trait is one that both of the other flaws fall in, and that is Oedipus having hubris or overconfidence. Because of the absence of Laius, the city of Thebes was under a plague. To stop this plague Oedipus must find the killer of Laios. In this instance Oedipus was very confident that he would find the murderer. Again to the Teirasias scene: Teiresias was trying to tell Oedipus that he was the killer and as he said, "I say that you have been living in un-guessed shame with your nearest kin, and do not to see what woe you have come.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Journeys are moments in life that define and reconstruct the myths we create about ourselves and others. All too often the ideals of a biased community or select group are viewed as the model by which all individuals must follow. To escape the pressures of a collective standard a person must travel outside the constraints of a community and discover his or her own true identity. On such a journey one can expect moments of planned reflection or unexpected instances of revelation. A journey is every minute of my existence, as I travel through life and try to ascertain my own presence in its cycle. An essential journey occurred three years ago when I set out on a personal pilgrimage. I wanted to re-travel the time line of the past few years and locate the point where I had allowed the influence of others to determine my own concept of self. "Self" is not necessarily complex or intricate, but it does define the character of a person and how he or she wants to be viewed. In my own rush to "fit in" at college I had disregarded what I needed and complacently accepted the definitions of others. I expended my energy trying to model myself according to the contemplation of my peers, all the while ignoring principles which I felt were inherent to my survival. Once the missing feeling of singularity is discovered, an individual must set out upon a journey and reconstruct the notions of self and identity. Understanding my own needs, I decided to embark on a solo expedition into the woods of Maine. The solo was an opportunity to disassociate myself from everything that I considered comfortable and safe. For two nights the only person I encountered was myself. After several days of paddling, my guide and I neared the island where... ...d in an unknown surrounding and somehow I had become part of it. I welcomed the crash of an animal over my tent or the presence of the sand fleas. I journeyed into their environment a foreigner, and even in my most vulnerable stages of sleep, I had become an accepted presence. While on my solo I wrote a letter to myself. In the letter I revealed what I had learned and what it meant to realize my own strength and will in those few days of solitude. I gave the letter to my guide and asked him to send it to me in a year. I remember the day the letter came. At first I did not recognize the faded words on the envelope, but as soon as I glanced at the return address I knew that they were my own. I once again sought solitude. In a small corner of my family's flower garden I opened the letter and began reading. The first words I read were "remember the Medicine Wheel."
Saturday, August 17, 2019
We may conclude that ISO 14001 has significant and direct profit and wealth creation potentials. Companies need effective management accounting systems to monitor all costs and benefits that accrue from the ISO 14001 process. Companies also need to market the consumer and social benefits of ISO 14001 effectively to targeted market segments for which environmental management matters. ISO 14001 and Seasonal Business Union CarbideÃ¢â¬â¢s Indian pesticides business, which caused the toxic cloud in Bhopal, was a highly seasonal business, with uncertainties regarding pest outbreaks and cropping patterns. The accident occurred in December, some 100 days after the peak demand for pesticides in that sub-tropical climate, with monsoon-dependant crop acreages. The worldwide tourism business is another example of high seasonal fluctuations in demand. Cyclical downturns are notorious for taking place when full complements of expert staff are not available, as outside normal working hours. Any operation with wide differences between times of peak demand and off-peak times, will inevitably respond by having fewer people available for watch and ward duties, at some times. Environmental Management Systems can never afford to slacken their vigilance, as all dangers and risks are not necessarily related with peak loads. ISO 14001 offers a reliable structure within which systems can operate to adequate standards even during times of low demand. The documentation support of ISO 14001 can prove to be invaluable in containing the emergent implications of any incident. The tourism industry benefits from ISO 14001, not only because of the off-season protection, but simultaneously because of the demand for eco-tourism and out of sustainability concerns for this large service sector. ISO 14001 is especially useful for any enterprise with high seasonality of demand. It helps organizations establish infrastructure that can maintain emergency response and environmental management capabilities at optimal costs during the lean seasons. It also helps companies to plan for peak demand in terms of environmental loads. These advantages are over and above the other benefits of the system that apply to all registrants. ISO 14001 and Building Projects The project nature of civil construction, and its high involvement with third party contractors, places a special challenge for ISO 14001. The growing demand for Ã¢â¬Ëgreen buildings. Ã¢â¬â¢ is a special opportunity for the system. ISO is very well suited for the construction industry, and can help it meet new demands for sustainability. Much of the most lasting harm to the environment from modern industry arises from the materials, processes and designs of buildings and related civil structures. Asbestos abatement has been the focus of many environmental management standards of the building industry during the recent past. Asbestos exposure has occurred 3-4 decades earlier. This is a powerful reminder of the need for LCA in civil construction. The entire ISO 14001 system has a host of similar benefits for all stakeholders in the building industry. Architecture and ISO 14001 share a common emphasis on the design phase of projects, to avoid problems arising out of implementation. Hence, professionals in the construction business are especially amenable to the spirit of ISO 14001. The system has much to contribute by way of reducing material wastage in construction, and in reducing energy loads of actual use of buildings. ISO 14001 is eminently suited to meet the certification standards of the Green Building Council, and the specifications for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) status. ISO 14001 has additional benefits with respect to protecting investors from a legal point of view in real estate transactions. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), accompanies a number of state and local regulations that have major environmental implications. Any business in the construction or real estate business can benefit from ISO 14001, as they will have a sound system to choose projects with which they can be involved. They can also plan for full legal compliance as new laws take effect. ISO 14001 has powerful marketing potential for real estate developers. Investors and people on the market for buying homes would be inevitably attracted to projects that have sound environmental management systems in place. Buildings, neighborhoods and cities that make minimal imprints on the environment, that have track records of continual improvement and that make invaluable savings in maintenance resources, will always appreciate and attract communities. ISO 14001 has the potential to become mandatory for new real estate projects, particularly for ones in places that are rich in natural resources. ISO 14001 and Equator Principles Banks that subscribed to the Equator Principles have often found themselves in difficult situations, having to assess the environmental impacts of projects that for which they consider financing. Conflicting views from various stakeholders can be difficult for lenders to reconcile, as many aspects of the matter require local expertise and technological appreciation. ISO 14001 offers a solution for such matters, since it calls for a transparent and systematic assessment of chosen aspects, with a structured audit and review process. The Equator Principles could extend towards fields of transnational endeavor other than funding, and ISO 14001 can be a reliable and universal bridge for assessment and continual evaluation. The next decades will see a spurt in funded development projects in large tracts of the world. There is enormous pressure for large projects designed to bring succor to rural and urban communities. Funding will be mostly across geographical boundaries as capital resources are centered with countries other than the ones with the physical features for development. Investors and sources of public funds everywhere will face questions about environmental management, as they peruse candidate projects from distant locations. ISO 14001 is a good solution in these circumstances, for it provides a neutral and universal format in which all developers and governments can plan to manage the environmental impacts of the new projects that they conceive. International bodies can respond to social activists who claim that most development projects cause environmental harm, by asking project owners to use the transparency and accountability of the ISO 14000 series. SME Experience with ISO 14001 The vast majority of enterprises in most countries belong to the small and medium categories. ISO 14001 cannot be the force that it should, unless the system proves to be valid, useful and feasible for such organizations. A superficial look at ISO 14001 could lead most observers to conclude that it is too involved and expensive for any but the largest of corporations to afford. However, the reality is that ISO 14001 lends itself to adoption by even small and medium enterprises. An on-line survey of small and medium enterprises (those with fewer than 100 employees) with ISO 14001, displays pleasantly surprising results (International Organization for Standardization, 2005). Pressures to comply with environmental regulations, demands from corporate customers that are higher up in the supply chain and lucrative opportunities in foreign markets, are the three most important stimulants for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to seek the business advantages of ISO 14001. Many SMEs lose out because they do not seek ISO 14001 certifications, either out of ignorance, or because of wrong impressions they hold of the resources required. There is a clear need to make the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits more widely known and more accurately appreciated. Many SME owners incorrectly believe that pollution is an exclusive preserve of large corporations! The significant negative contributions of SMEs to environmental management are often ignored, especially if units are scattered and relatively isolated. Many SMEs stay away from ISO 14001 as they are not aware of government and institutional support available for them to secure certification within their means. Some consultants confound the issue by outlying more paperwork and bureaucracy than is necessary for the sizes of some potential clients. SMEs also have the choice to build their EMSs on alternative systems that compete with ISO 14001. It would appear overall that ISO 14001 has a great deal of unused potential with respect to EMSs for SMEs. This is a marketing challenge for country organizations of the ISO body. SMEs can be very wasteful of material and energy, albeit on a relatively small scale. They may not be immediately aware of wastes they generate, but this has a cumulative effect that has to be addressed at some stage. Pest Control Operators and Applicators are classic examples of small enterprises that deal with highly toxic chemicals. The latter can affect wide areas and large communities. All SMEs everywhere can use ISO 14001 to fight competition from better resourced corporations, by using effective EMSs. The move to terminate enterprises that have no controls on the pollution they cause and the hazards inherent in their operations, is current already. Growth is a natural evolution even for SMEs. ISO 14001, apart from protecting business interests as described above, also has the power to afford rapid growth for SMEs. The Internet enables local companies to achieve global reach. ISO 14001 can help them match their new found logistical strengths with EMSs that work. Any SME with growth ambitions has to use ISO 14001 as essential infrastructure for its future plans. Summary of Benefits of Environmental Management Systems Environmental management standards help companies to build their transactions across territorial boundaries. It is likely to become a sort of pre-requisite for global corporations. Emerging economies must develop expertise in environmental management to fight non-tariff barriers to markets in advanced economies. It is an integral part of the branding process. Environmental management systems help companies and organizations respond to important concerns of their main stakeholders. It is therefore a matter of priority for most entities in the conventional world. Companies from all sectors of the economy have become aware of the pressing need to conserve precious natural resources (Case Studies, 2002). ISO 14001 has enabled companies such as Apple stay abreast of changing regulation on environmental matters. The company was able to eliminate lead from batteries, and later to substitute Nickel-Cadmium batteries in line with European Union directives. These are concrete examples of how ISO 14001 helps companies stay in business by conforming in time to new and higher environmental protection standards. AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s switch to lithium ion batteries is an example of how ISO 14001 can squeeze additional ingenuity out of the industrial sector. Progressive companies such as Apple Computers buy products and services from companies that demonstrate effective commitment to environmental conservation (Case Studies, 2002). Supply chain considerations make ISO 14001 essential for the suppliers of major corporations. The proponents of ISO 14001 started by show-casing the benefits of the discipline in terms of the ethics of environmental concerns. The world has moved on since then, and ISO 14001 is no longer an option chosen by those with surplus cash. ISO 14001 has become a vital visa that provides contemporary corporations with the rights to continue business in the 21st century. The days of firms that do not meet ISO 14001 standards, are numbered. Savings in energy bills provide financial succor to firms that invest in reducing power consumption. This is a good example of the meeting point between the financial and non-financial advantages of environmental management systems. ISO 14001 is voluntary and flexible. It does not enforce any external standards. Companies can tailor their individual EMSs to the nature of their enterprise, and to the levels of expertise they have achieved in environmental management. It is a stable framework for the conduct of modern business that will appeal to professionals, and it is an effective way of extracting new efficiencies out of matured business processes. What Is It? The International Standards Organization, with its impressive name, has given ISO 14000 impressive credentials. The success of the ISO 9000 series in promoting quality consciousness has created high expectations in terms of the 14000 series enjoying similar success on the environmental front. However, many people are still not aware of the precise nature and scope of ISO 14000. The ISO 14000 series started in 1991: the first standards were published in 1996. It is therefore less well known and understood than the 9000 series which have been used for longer. The ISO 14000 series helps organizations meet environmental issues (Hanson, A. J. not dated). It is a documentation system that sets out objectives with priorities, divides responsibilities amongst a team, and provides for independent audit. It is important to bear in mind that ISO 14000 is not a single system, but rather a series of international standards (Environmental Management Guide 2004). ISO 14001 helps organizations to implement EMS, to ensure conformance to standards, to ensure compliance with relevant regulation and to seek independent certification (Environmental Management Guide 2004). Any organization that uses ISO 14001 disciplines will be better equipped to deal with the challenges of environmental management. ISO 14001 is one unit of the ISO 14000 series. ISO 14000 is a voluntary system-business houses and organization have rights to decide on whether or not they would like to invest in it. It has a pervasive influence, and calls for serious commitment of time and money. The decision to use ISO 14000 is therefore strategic by nature. Though community and key customer pressures can often be motivating factors, some organizations opt for ISO certification out of genuine concern for the environment. ISO 14000 recognizes environmental conservation as an integral part of organizational process, on par with more traditional functions such as Finance, Personnel and so on. The system must integrate with the total company organization and structure, if it is to yield meaningful and lasting benefits. Most companies start their ISO 14000 experiences with the help of experienced consultants, but that does not preclude deployment of significant human resources from an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s own pool. ISO 14000 has three major sections: life cycle analysis, environmental performance evaluation and labeling (Hanson, A. J. not dated). ISO 14001 in the series is concerned with environmental management systems. Organizations should plan to deploy the full ISO 14000 series over time, though they may start with ISO 14001 for reasons of resource constraints, to obtain the benefits of focus, and to give time to their employees to adjust to the new way of working. The ISO 14000 series is a guide that almost every organization can adapt to its specific needs. The system is very flexible in terms of fitting in to various sets of circumstances. Companies that work for profit have used ISO 14000 more widely than social organizations and government bodies. Firms from diverse segments of industry and even the services have all used ISO 14000 with equally remarkable success. However, the ISO system is not a packaged solution by itself. It is up to each registrant to use the system to its advantage. ISO promotes a new culture of professionalism. The documentation and procedures that the system enjoins on its followers, enforces a systematic approach to issues. It also promotes transparency, and ensures that organizations can respond in uniform manner, with low dependence on individual whims. It is especially useful to deal with emergent situations, and in ones in which a large number of variables require simultaneous consideration. Employees of an ISO 14000 certified organization display new confidence about their responsibilities and can do a more complete job of conserving the environment. ISO 14001 is a new template for modern business. It acknowledges the ubiquitous role of the environment in our lives, and provides paths to sustainable compromises that technology and conventional issues can negotiate with our natural surroundings. The ISO 14000 series can give a new lease of life to a business that is under attack because of the hazards and toxicity that it entails. It can help a small business rival a large corporation in terms of professional standards. It can help organizations perform uniformly across geographical and cultural boundaries. ISO 14000 is truly the way of the 21st century. There are concrete profits to be earned from the ISO 14000 series. The system is relentless in searching for ways to reduce consumption per unit of output, and ways to reuse or recycle waste and by products. Certification brings access to new markets and strengthens a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive position. There are therefore classic business reasons for using the ISO 14000 system. Environmental Labeling and ISO 14000 Some manufacturers have used the absence of regulations to prepare labels with unsubstantiated ecological claims on labels (Hanson, A. J. not dated). Consumers who would like to support manufacturers of environmentally sound products are hampered by the proliferation of labels that make vague and even incorrect claims about environmental impacts. Environmental labeling under the ISO 14000 series, corrects this anomaly. This is an important reason for business houses to support ISO 14000. The world is on a move towards the regulation of labeling standards, and companies that do not follow ISO 14000 may soon find themselves excluded from key markets. Three levels of labeling standards are available for manufacturers who would like to use the ISO 14000 system for their products. Most consumers are accustomed to Type 1 Environmental Labels. The latter provide criteria against which each covered product is measured. Canada and Germany have adopted these standards. Type II labels will use uniform terms and definitions: standards and details will be available in due course. Type III labels seek to provide information along a set of pre-determined criteria. Such labels are already in use for some nutritional products. Environmental labeling predisposes companies to resort to Life Cycle Analysis. The number of products with environmentally sound labels has grown exponentially since the 1990s (Hanson, A. J. not dated). There were less than 25 such products in the United States in 1989. The number grew to 600 by 1990. It is now a business that exceeds $10 billion. The stage is set for economies in all countries to move over to products and services that can make valid claims about environmental management on their labels. The ISO 14000 deals with environmental management on the basis of the following main principles (Hanson, A. J. not dated): Ã¢â¬Å"Labeling should be accurate, verifiable, relevant and should be non-deceptive. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The party that makes the label should make relevant information about the attributes available to purchasers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Labeling should be based on comprehensive scientific methods that are reproducible Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information on the process and methodologies should be available to all interested parties Ã¢â¬ ¢ Labeling should incorporate where appropriate the life cycle of the product or service Ã¢â¬ ¢ Administrative requirements should not make participation difficult Ã¢â¬ ¢ Labels should not create unfair trade restrictions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Labeling should not inhibit innovation that may improve environmental performance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Labeling criteria should be developed by consensusÃ¢â¬ Environment labeling programs are democratic in nature. Producers can decide to comply of their own volition. Any manufacturer can decide to use the system, regardless of nature, size and location. It therefore gives an opportunity for new industrial entities to seek competitive advantage against entrenched brands. The greater interests of consumers always have over-riding priority. There are four methods available for verification of claims made on environmental labels. These are: Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of conformity: the manufacturer self-declares conformance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Review of supporting documentation: the practitioner requires the applicant to provide documentary evidence of conformity Ã¢â¬ ¢ Evaluation of conformity with manufacturing phase requirements: where the production phase is evaluated Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product testing: samples of the product are tested (Hanson, A. J. not dated). Companies have to establish monitoring systems to ensure on-going compliance once their label claims have been verified. Environmental labeling is an important development in terms of improving environmental accountability of modern business. It is an integral part of the ISO 14000 process. It is also in the best interests of companies as it costs less than invasive regulation. Since awareness about environmental matters is growing, environmental labeling can improve market share. Products with comprehensive information about environmental impacts on their labels will perform better in highly competitive situations. There is the analogy of air emissions as a buying benefit in the case of automobiles. Clothing made from organic fiber, food free of harmful residues, cosmetics that do not use animal testing, durables that consumers can return to manufacturers for recycling and instructions on how to use dangerous products without causing harm, are all live examples of some of the most successful branding that has been achieved through environmental labeling. This portion of the ISO 14000 package is instrumental in building unbreakable bonds between brand owners and customers, and in improving customer satisfaction. It is therefore a pivotal strategy for profitable and sustainable business growth. ISO 14001 for International Corporations Since environmental standards and concern vary by country, international corporations face dilemmas with respect to environmental management systems. Most of these companies are headquartered and controlled in the first world, though their products, services and operations cover far corners of the globe. Such companies used to follow territory-specific environmental management systems in the past. This has some technical validity, as natural resources, climate and social habits can place such different demands on business. However, social activists have begun to question the ethics of double standards. International companies have become accountable for following uniform policies and standards wherever they may operate. This can be quite confusing as regulatory requirements are not uniform throughout the world. ISO 14001 offers a path out of these contradictions. Group Managements can influence policy statements and control systems, leaving affiliates and subsidiaries to identify aspects, programs and specifications. Audits and reviews provide a uniform basis for transnational comparisons. Certification is a strong defense against unsubstantiated attacks by social activists. Overall, ISO 14001 offers value to organizations that need to harmonize international and local components of environmental management systems. The portability of human resources is a key consideration for international companies. Assignments and transfers to new locations are established means of career development. New perspectives of individuals from exotic markets, often inject new dynamism in to stagnating business sectors. Periodic changes in fitment for key positions ensure transparency and integrity of linkages between companies and its independent suppliers and contractors. There are therefore a host of reasons for international companies to move personnel between countries, markets and sectors. However, continuity of important business processes becomes a concern, as new people occupy crucial positions at various points of the organization. The accumulated learning of an individual, as well as the rationale for pivotal decisions, has to be available for a new incumbent. The environmental aspects of management situations can be too important and irreversible in nature for companies to depend on word-of-mouth spread between colleagues about the reasons for how operations are conducted. Casual or experimental changes in processes based on theoretical concepts, or based on notions from irrelevant past experience, can be devastating in environmental terms. The ISO 14001 system plays a most helpful role in such matters. Versions of the manual built up over time serve as invaluable references in managing the evolution of all business processes. Records of management reviews lend authenticity to how things are done in each function and location. Since ISO 14001 is an on-going process, it also allows adequate scope for new incumbents in local organizations to express themselves fully, and to expound their ideas for business improvement. The ISO 14000 series is therefore an enabling network for large and inter-changeable teams of professionals to work in a seamless way. Environmental concerns are important for modern branding and new product development processes. Though branding and new product development should be globally uniform for the best returns on investment, environmental aspects can vary across countries, and even within segments of domestic markets. There can therefore be an inherent conflict between marketing and environmental concerns. The ISO 14001 system offers a way to resolve such conflicts. The policy statement serves to establish universal ground rules within which innovation can be encouraged. The choice of environmental aspects that are chosen for address in individual countries can be adapted to meet local requirements. ISO 14001 helps to define the boundaries between local and global environmental management concerns related to brands and new product development. Group managements of international corporations have to make choices between territories and industrial sectors for resource allocation, especially in terms of financial deployment. Since most projects have long gestation periods, and may involve very substantial commitments, managers at one central location can always have difficulties in making choices between alternatives at more than one remote location. Local environmental concerns tend to be in flux and there are often crucial differences between the regulatory conditions related to environmental management systems of various countries. Group managements may have to take important decisions in the face of incomplete and uncertain background information. Countries with less transparent and elaborate environmental regulations may either fall by the wayside in investment choices, or at the other extreme, attract funds for new projects without due consideration for the risks involved. ISO 14001 makes it possible to compare opportunities and threats across nations in a fair and even way. Records of progressive audits provide a firm and equal basis to take decisions on the future of operations in various territories. This is apart from serving as a common platform for the evaluation of business performance. Social activism tends to concentrate on large international corporations. Environmental degradation due to poverty, ignorance and by SMEs is often overlooked by non-governmental organizations. Such attacks can occupy limited management time and lead to intractable and unproductive negotiations. An ISO 14001 certification is an effective safeguard in such circumstances. It provides a harmonious platform for divergent views to be addressed, and a participatory format for conflict resolution. Records of management reviews can form crucial evidence in defense of executive action and environmental responsibility. The advantages of the ISO 14000 system for large international corporations are so obvious and pervasive, that one can conclude that all such organizations do have EMSs in place, though they may not always seek certification. It is difficult to conceive of a body conducting business in a sustained way across the globe without any systems for environmental management. The external audit and public scrutiny of the ISO 14000 series is what most management teams would want to avoid. It is possible to conclude that most if not all large international corporations follow ISO 14000 systems in some form, though they may not find it expedient to join the organization in a formal sense. ISO 14001 in Mergers and Acquisitions. Differences in environmental management systems can confound and delay mergers and acquisitions. Potential buyers may be put off by uncertainties about product liability. Due diligence can be affected by paucity of documentation, and by contradictory verbal feedback from employees and other stakeholders. The entire ISO 14000 series is a way out of such problems. ISO processes serve to assure all parties about the integrity of environmental impact assessments, while successive editions of the manual and audit reports put achievements and progress in valid and measured perspectives. Companies that follow ISO 14001 will find it relatively easy to continue business normally very soon after a merger or an acquisition. There could be major disruptions or unpleasant surprises if an inter-corporate transaction involves an unregistered entity. ISO 14001 also protects minority and dissenting interests in mergers and acquisitions. Stock market regulators are well advised to insist on ISO registration as a pre-condition to equity restructuring. The case of batteries illustrates how tangential product components can have significant impact on the core strategies of a business. Computers use batteries inevitably, but the technology of their production lies outside the domain of electronics and software. However, ecological concerns about the use of heavy metals such as lead, nickel and cadmium in batteries, and the relatively high rate of product obsolescence in computers, has forced companies in this field to acquire expertise in technologies such as that of lithium ions, and to find sources for commercial supplies of ecologically sound batteries. Computer companies have also to divert major resources to recycling programs that are integral to their products, but the matter of batteries illustrates the inter-related complications that can be part of doing business in the 21st century. This aspect gives Life Cycle Analysis great value, as it is a systematic way to cover all known environmental impacts that arise as a result of any enterprise. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) seeks to cover all sources of burdens on the environment that the production of a product may entail (Hanson, A.J. not dated). The system covers the consumption of all materials, use of energy in all forms, production processes, supply chains, logistics, waste disposal and recycling. LCA adopts an integrated approach to environmental management, and it works in four stages. Initiation, inventory analysis, impact analysis and interpretation are the four stages of LCA. Interpretation is also called improvement analysis. LCA is a vital part of the ISO 14000 system, and it has universal application for all fields of human endeavor. LCA has most utility when designing new products, but the technique can also be used to reduce the environmental burden of an existing product. Substitutes may compete on the basis of LCA facts, as is the case of disposable diapers versus washable ones. Such comparisons engage healthy debate and help to build indelible opinions about environmental conservation. LCA is integrative and holistic in its approach to environmental concerns. It is especially useful in uncovering hidden risks and costs that may associate in covert manner with some products and services. LCA proceeds in a step-wise manner, toting up the material and energy requirements of each component of a production process, and then presenting a total picture of the environmental impact of each product or service that is covered. LCA considers waste generations and impacts on air and water at each stage of procurement and production. It also considers distribution and actual use. The ISO 14001 process cannot be complete without full LCA. The Canadian Standards Association has stated LCA benefits in the follo.